XML - Virginia Tech

XML - Virginia Tech

03/25/2002 XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Aniket Prabhune : XML, Origin of XML, Features of XML, XML Models, A Typical XML System, XML Applications, Example Josh Steele: Schemas, XSL/XSLT, Linking Languages (Xlink, Xpath, Xpointer), XML Uses (MathML, XML-Data, XHTML, WIDL), Example

CS-6704 Design Patterns and Component Frameworks Spring 20 XML "The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the universal format for structured documents and data on the Web." http://www.w3.org/XML/ Next generation of document delivery methods on the Web. XML is a cross-platform, software and hardware independent, tool for transmitting information. [PL00]

Origin of XML Development of XML started in 1996 W3C Recommendation in 1998 New but not immature ! SGML an ISO standard since 1986 HTML development started in 1990 XML: Best parts of SGML guided by HTML [PL00] Need for XML

XML is also a document description meta-language like SGML SGML is more powerful ancestor of XML SGML: difficult to learn and use, expensive XML: easy to learn and use, less expensive [PL00] XML Features XML is for structuring data

Spreadsheets, address books, financial transactions, technical drawings, etc Set of rules Not a programming language Makes it easy for computer to generate and read data and ensure that the data structure is unambiguous XML Features XML looks a bit like HTML but is different !

Both are markup languages that use tags and attributes XML not a replacement for HTML XML: describe data what data is ? HTML: display data how data looks ? Ability to define own tags, attributes and document structure Rules for XML are very strict XML Features

XML is a text format Data Storage: Binary or Text Text: + Easy to refer + Easy to debug XML is Verbose by Design XML files are larger than binary formats Inexpensive Disk space,

compression programs, communication protocols XML Features XML is a family of technologies. XML 1.0 Xlink XPointer and XFragments CSS (Cascaded Style Sheet) XSL/XSLT DOM XML Schemas 1 and 2 XML Features XML is modular

XML allows you to define a new document format by combining and reusing other formats XML Namespaces: to eliminate name confusions Collection of element type and attribute names Identified by a unique name : URI XML Features

XML is well-supported, licensefree and platform-independent Large and growing community of tools and engineers experienced in the technology License-free Vendor independent Information Exchange Models Traditiona l: Client (Browser) Renders HTML for display purpose

HTML Web Server Sends information formatted in HTML so the client can display it Business logic database XML: Client (Browser) renders XSL/XML for display and can perform further tasks (e.g. sorting, calculations,etc) XML/

XSL Web Server Sends information in raw XML and (one time) includes XSL style sheet for formatting purposes to the client Business logic database [CH99] Document Models Traditiona l: Information

XML: Information Structure Structure Display Display [CH99] A Typical XML System XML Document (Content) XML Parser (Conformity) XML Application XML DTD

(Rules) (optional) [CH99] XML Document (Content) Actual Data to be processed Rich description of information using XML syntax Based on entities containing: Content: Actual Information (author of book, price of book, number of pages, etc) Content is encased in markup [CH99] DTD (Document Type Definition)

Ensuring the structure of data Piece of code that defines the allowable structures in an XML Document Advantages of using DTD: Check your XML document for validity Share your data easily over the web Valid XML documents Well-formed XML documents [CH99] XML Parser

A software engine that performs the actual check on the data to make sure: It is syntactically correct (well formed) It conforms to the DTD (valid) if you choose to include a DTD Replicates the structure of the information in memory, ready for customized processing through an XML application Included with Most Browsers [CH99] How a Parser Interprets XML ? XML

Well formed? Documen t no DTD ? yes yes no Further Processing yes (optional)

DTD Issue Warning/ Stop Processing Valid ? Issue Warning/ no Stop Processing [CH99] XML Applications What you make as a programmer !

Typically processes information encased in XML Documents E-Commerce Online Banking Web Services Creating other markup languages Advanced Search Engines Agents Almost Anything ! [CH99] Example Inventory Book (InStock) Title Book

(InStock) Author .... Book (InStock) Pages [TB00] Example (DTD) <>


245 . . . [TB00] Example (CSS) <> TITLE { display:block; margin-top:12pt; font-size:20pt; font-style:italic; color: Blue; } AUTHOR

{ display: block; margin-left:20pt; color: Red; font-size:20pt font-weight: bold; } . . . property value [TB00] Output References

Information about XML : http://www.w3.org/XML/ XML 1.0 Recommendation: www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml Specific articles on XML : www.xml.com [TB00] Tittel, E., Boumphrey, F., XML for Dummies, IDG, 2000 [PL00] Phillips, L.,A., Using XML, QUE, 2000 [CH99] Ceponkus A., Hoodbhoy, F., Applied XML, Wiley, 1999 XML Tutorials: www.projectcool.com/developer/xmlz/ http://wdvl.com/Authoring/Languages/XML/ http://www.w3schools.com/xml/ XML Mailing Lists:

www.w3.org/XML/#discussion www.oasis-open.org/cover/lists.html#discussionLists XML JOKE !!!!!!! When should you use XML ? When you want a buzzword on your resume !

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