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BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS ADJUSTING SCHOOL START TIMES Boston School Committee November 15th, 2017 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Agenda Why Change Start and End Times? What Weve Heard Tradeoffs & Priorities Proposed Policy Appendix 2 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Why Change Start and End Times? We are changing bell times for five reasons 1 2 Sleep research has found that high school students benefit from a later school start time The final rollout of Schedule A ELT has pushed back some school dismissal times to 4:10pm 3 Our bell time system today is inefficient, resulting in high costs 4 5 The complexity of our system has made us unable to comply with existing School Committee policy Our transportation system is interconnected, making it difficult to make incremental changes without system-wide change 3 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Why Change Start and End Times? As a selection of Boston Globe articles show, this is not a new problem No later start times are in the works for September, but English and Brighton high school officials are considering pilot programs that could stagger start times for some teens and have them make up the lost morning time elsewhere Start times promise to be a prominent topic at staff and student meetings, officials say September 27, 1998 Sleepy teens may need later start time January 5th, 2003 Source: Boston Globe historical archives Many of Bostons approximately three dozen high schools have among the earliest start times in the state March 10th, 2016 Let Boston high schoolers start school later February 23, 2017 4 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Why Change Start and End Times? Solving this problem has been the work of an internal taskforce over the last year Boston school officials have decided against changing the start times for next fall, saying they need more time to conduct an analysis and consult with the community Boston Globe, December 2, 2016 Consult with the community

Conduct an analysis Through our survey last spring we heard from parents of ~7,500 students and ~2,100 school staff, and we heard from people in person at 17 stakeholder meetings Through the Transportation Challenge we developed for the first time a tool that can demonstrate what start time combinations are possible A coherent, efficient, and pedagogically sound bell time policy 5 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Agenda Why Change Start and End Times? What Weve Heard Tradeoffs & Priorities Proposed Policy Appendix 6 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard Over the fall, weve held a number of additional engagement activities Robust Meeting Schedule Event Detailed Website and Robocalls Working Group

Date Sociedad Latina (Mission Hill) 10/17 Principal Cabinet (Citywide / Roxbury) 10/23 St. Stephens Parent Group (Downtown) 10/24 BCYF / Curtis Hall (Jamaica Plain) 10/26 BPS Open House (Citywide / Roxbury) 10/28 BSAC (Citywide / Roxbury) 10/30 BTU Membership Meeting (Citywide / Dorchester) 10/30 St. Peters Teen Center (Dorchester) 11/1

Salesian Boys and Girls Club (East Boston) 11/2 BCYF / Mildred Ave (Mattapan) 11/2 Hyde Park Community Center (Hyde Park) 11/2 DELAC Election (Roxbury) 11/3 Harvard-Kent (Charlestown) 11/6 Citywide Conversation at Lilla Frederick (Dorchester) 11/8 Yawkey B&G Club (Roxbury) 11/9 SPED PAC (Roxbury)

11/13 School Committee (Roxbury) 11/25 Bostonpublicschools.org/ starttimes Ammal Jama, Junior at Boston Latin School Ashley Figueroa, Junior at Boston Latin Academy Avery Esdaile, Director of Athletics Dena Guthrie, Parent and Library Paraprofessional Ed Lee, Operational Superintendent Freda Johnson, Headmaster at the English High School Gloria West, Grove Hall and BPS Parent Hammad Ahmed, Director of Operations at Neighborhood House Charter School Jessica Tang, President of the Boston Teachers Union Jennie Chang, Junior at Bostin Latin Academy John Hanlon, Chief of Operations Kim Crowley, Principal of the Lee School Mary Ann Crayton, Senior Director of Community Engagement Michael Loconto, School Committee Mona Ford, Principal of the Winship School Monica Roberts, Assistant Superintendent, Office of Engagement Nnenna Ude, Chief Operating Officer, Match Charter School

Rahn Dorsey, Chief of Education Regina Robinson, School Committee Rob Consalvo, Chief of Staff Steven Chen, Office of Equity Traci Walker Griffith, Principal of Eliot K-8 7 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard We have engaged ~20K parents, teachers, students and community members Who We Heard From and How Met with 100+ Students Heard from 6,365 parents and 2,102 school staff on our survey last fall Over 10K+ website views Met with 300+ community members at 17 events Heard from 1,660 community members through our online feedback form And many other groups Note: Engagement data as of 11/15/2017, subject to change. Parent survey represents responses for ~7,500 students 8 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

What Weve Heard In our community conversations, several themes emerged Post 4pm dismissals are a challenge for many elementary school families, students, and teachers A 9:30 start is very late given children's sleep cycles and inconvenient for working parents. Plus, with the late dismissal, she cant participate in swimming lessons, playdates, etc. Parent BPS should follow the abundance of research on the value of high school students starting later and push high school start times past 8am All of the research says early start times are bad for learning and growing for high school students. We need start times that align with their developmental needs Teacher There is a need for increased before- and/or after- school support at late and early start schools I think every school should have surround care the day needs to be extended for working parents and to give students more time to learn Parent If changing times generates cost savings, then many wish to see those funds reinvested in schools Please stop spending on buses and reinvest the money into our classrooms Student We need a process that doesnt advantage some schools over others Please dont give preference to certain schools - that is unfair, not transparent, and too common Principal Where possible, we should prioritize students with specific needs Ensuring high needs students get home on time should be the first thing that you do Parent 9 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard Our survey revealed that 8-8:30 was the most popular start time range, but there is no consensus Family and School Staff Preferences 7 6 5 Parents of K-6 Students 4 Parents of 7-12 Students 3

Teachers Other School Staff 9:30 AM 9:15 AM 9:00 AM 8:45 AM 8:30 AM 8:15 AM 8:00 AM 7:45 AM 7:30 AM 7:15 AM 1 7:00 AM 2 Note: Question read How do you feel about the following start times {for you or your student}? 1 is strongly dislike and 7 is strongly like Source: 2017 BPS Transportation Survey 10 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS and at least one parent dislikes every bell

time Less Less Popular Popular At least one parent likes every bell time 0.4 0.39 0.38 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

0.29 Parent Preference Data at a Large Elementary School, (n=76 at this Particular School) More More Popular Popular What Weve Heard and variation within schools shows that it is impossible to make everyone happy What that data tells me here is that there is no consensus even within schools so no matter what bell time we pick, were going to be an equal opportunity offender. So lets take the parental preference piece largely off the table and just try to make the system account for the biological needs of students and more efficient Parent Source: 2017 BPS Transportation Survey 11 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard While many individuals dislike a late start and end, a considerable minority prefer these times % of Parents and Teachers Listing 9:30 as Their Favorite Time The after school options at my school are not good. I would prefer that the day end late so I can work until 5 Parent 30% 25% 20% All Respondents Currently at 9:30am School

15% 10% 5% 0% Voices For Post-9am Starts Parents Teachers Source: 2017 BPS Transportation Survey I do not like the idea of forcing my son to wake very early in the morning. I think 9am is an appropriate start time for all schools Parent We are a late school and it helps me greatly starting later than my own children please dont change us! Teacher I like the 9:30am start time, the kids don't have to wake up super early (they are not morning kids) giving them time to eat breakfast, wake up, and prepare for a full day. The late dismissal time works well for when most people I feel get out of work Parent 12 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard Research has continually found that later school start times are beneficial to secondary students success A substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement The American

Academy of Pediatrics [The AMA calls on] school districts across the United States to implement middle and high school start times no earlier than 8:30 a.m. American Medical Association Natural sleep rhythms change as children grow into adolescence, such that adolescents require an increased amount of sleep, have difficulty falling asleep before 11:00 PM, and function optimally if permitted to remain asleep until 8:00 AM or later National PTA 13 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS What Weve Heard The Budget Equity Working Group has been working on a set of equity-driven principles and investment priorities Members of the Budget Equity Working Group Include Adrianne Level, Vice-President of Black Educators Alliance of Massachusetts (BEAM) Alexandra Oliver-Dvila, Executive Director of Sociedad Latina Ayele Shakur, Regional Executive Director of BUILD Greater Boston and Chair of the NAACP Education Committee Carline Pignato, Principal of the Channing Elementary School Colin Rose, Assistant Superintendent for Opportunity and Achievement Gaps (BPS)

Eleanor Laurans, Chief Financial Officer (BPS) Erika Giampietro, Managing Director of Long Term Planning (BPS) Jennifer Aponte, K1 Teacher at the Mildred Avenue K-8 School Maria Dominguez Gray, BPS Parent and Executive Director of the Phillips Brooks House Association Samuel Acevedo, Executive Director of the Boston Higher Education Resource Center Sam Tyler, President of the Boston Municipal Research Bureau Sherman Zemler Wu, BPS Parent and School Site Council member at the Mather Elementary School Will Thomas, Headmaster of Charlestown High School 14 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Agenda Why Change Start and End Times? What Weve Heard Tradeoffs & Priorities Proposed Policy Appendix 15 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Tradeoffs & Priorities We have built the tools and collected the data to adjust our priorities like a sound mixer weve been working on finding the combination that produces the best sound 16 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Tradeoffs & Priorities We have explored a number of possible priorities The main priority should be doing what is best for children Teacher, Mozart Elementary Reinvesting in schools Making high schools start times later Minimizing overall change in the system Giving parents their preferred times Making elementary schools start times earlier Generating less traffic and fewer carbon emissions Giving teachers and school staff their preferred times Ensuring all schools end before 4pm

Giving higher need schools, or students, preference 17 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Tradeoffs & Priorities Five emerged as major priorities The main priority should be doing what is best for children Teacher, Mozart Elementary Reinvesting in schools Making high schools start times later Minimizing overall change in the system Giving parents their preferred times Making elementary schools start times earlier Generating less traffic and fewer carbon emissions Giving teachers and school staff their preferred times Ensuring all schools end before 4pm Giving higher need schools, or students, preference 18

BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Tradeoffs & Priorities Realigning bell times presents a significant opportunity to reinvest in classrooms Transportation Budget by Category 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% a Tr po s n tio a rt n d Bu tb ge y en p S ng i d

o eg t Ca P ry eS Tim l l e eB l sib s o in av g c sA ro Note: Internal estimates for illustrative purposes only Possible Bell Time Savings Across Categories; ies 0 r go e at C ss

Boston still spends too much on avoidable, nonclassroom expenses like unnecessary busing which could be solved by harmonizing school start times Boston Globe Endorsement of Mayor Walsh, October 23, 2017 19 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Tradeoffs & Priorities While we can increase the number of students at more desirable bell times, there are limitations Given our current policies for rider eligibility and our desire to maintain or reduce transportation costs 1) It is possible to ensure that all BPS high school students start after 8am 2) It is not possible to ensure that all BPS elementary school students start before 9am 3) It is not possible to ensure that all students end before 4pm 20 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Agenda Why Change Start and End Times? What Weve Heard Tradeoffs & Priorities Proposed Policy Appendix 21 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Tradeoffs & Priorities We propose the following policy: We are asking the Boston School Committee to vote in favor of a system-wide change that achieves the following goals: In line with research about start times that maximize learning, increase the number of secondary school students starting after 8am; Where possible, increase the number of elementary school students dismissing before 4pm; Where possible, assign schools with higher concentrations of medically fragile students or students with autism or emotional impairment to bell times reflective of the needs of their student body; Where possible, do all of the above while maximizing reinvestment in schools. We would review this policy every five years, potentially including realigning bell times at those points. This policy would replace all prior Boston School Committee policy on school bell times. 22 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Agenda Why Change Start and End Times? What Weve Heard Tradeoffs & Priorities Proposed Policy Appendix 23 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix Bell time changes can make transportation more efficient Which school should we bring students to first Red or Blue? Each house represents a stop 24

BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix Bell time changes can make transportation more efficient If we pick up the blue students first, we increase the amount of deadhead in the system Total Drive Time: 90 minutes Total Mileage: 15 miles This stretch with an empty bus is considered deadhead 25 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix Bell time changes can make transportation more efficient Whereas if we pick up the red students first, we have significantly less deadhead time Total Drive Time: 45 minutes Total Mileage: 8 miles This ordering minimizes the distance between the school and the first stop 26 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard Some felt that bell times should not change, but many other voices demanded change Some felt that we should minimize changes Families need consistency! Please stop changing year after year. Now I am wondering if I need to make work adjustments yet again Parent I'm concerned about high schools drastically changing start times in a way that would affect students ability to participate in after school jobs, internships, child care for siblings, sports, and other activities Parent Too many changes in a few years. As a family, we are adjusting to the 4:10 dismissal. As a BPS teacher, my hours changed as well. So if they change again, for all of us its 3 years with 3 different sets of hours. Too much Parent and

Teacher In general, more wished for a system-wide start time revision Doing things the way they've always been done just because change is hard will hurt kids who are relying on the city to give them the best education we can. We can support parents and others through the transition with proper transportation and before- and after-school options Community Member BPS should have made the teens go later and the little kids go earlier. I think you are listening to your teachers more than parents and students. The science and fact is there for teens to start school at a later time. The after school sports argument is also not valid Parent I hope that BPS doesnt give special preferences to some schools over others and considers all schools equally across the district Parent 27 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard We heard primarily from parents who wanted high schools to start later Many respondents highlighted the research body highlighting the impact a lack of sleep has on teenagers academically and otherwise Teens need to get enough sleep in order to learn well. The current system makes this nearly impossible -- tons of research published to support later start times for high schools. This should not be a decision based on convenience of teachers OR convenience of parents OR even the results of a survey. It should be about the well being of the young people Parents The most important the fact that extensive studies have shown that teen-agers are not getting enough sleep in America, and that their education consequently suffers greatly Teacher 7:20 am is torture for teens and diminishes their academic achievement. Look at the data. Use science Parent Teens and pre-teens need more sleep than they tend to get. Their circadian rhythms tend to keep them up later, and their alert states start later than either younger children or adults. With the current start times, students must wake up very early in order to make it school on time. This not only affects their ability to learn and retain information in their earliest classes, but has longer term health effects as well Parent This discussion should ONLY be about medical research not about parents or student preferences and not about teacher and staff satisfaction. Introducing other reasoning just a distraction Parent Imagine getting 3.3 hours less sleep than you need every night. Not once in a while. EVERY. SCHOOL. NIGHT. You would be far from your best too Parent Im concerned about middle and high school students that get out of school at 1:30 and are then unsupervised for the rest of the afternoon Parent 28 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Appendix: What Weve Heard but there were some who felt that later start times would be worse for students Some argued that a later start time wouldnt help students sleep more or that early starts teach responsibility Starting one hour later will push back the dismissal time/sports/extra curricular activities. Therefore homework starts later and kids go to bed later. So starting later WON'T give students an extra hour of sleep Student High school students need responsibility to get to school early. It prepares them for early classes in college and jobs Parent I like the early time -- it allows me to drop the kids and go to work. If they started later they would just be going to bed at 12 versus 11 Parent The early start times also introduce her to the rigors of the real world Parent Others pointed to lost flexibility in terms of extracurricular options If school ends later, it will be difficult to fit any outside athletic activities, music lessons, tutoring or other activities into the schedule in addition to the minimum of 3 hours of homework (plus review of material and studying for tests, quizzes etc.). I talked to my daughter about this and she was very clear that she rather get up earlier and start school by 8am and go home/start activities by 2.30pm, than have a delayed start and come home late Parent Kids are exhausted when come home from school and top of that they have homework and other things to do Parent Late dismissal means that my children are unable to attend any after-school programs and sports. Which is very inconvenient for them to be socially active outside of school Parent 29 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard There were a number of voices in support of reinvestment This was especially true of school leaders nearly all of whom asked for reinvestment back into schools as a top priority School start times need to be adjusted to align with the cheapest transportation model possible in order to maximize funding at the school level to support students. With this, we could make all schools high quality schools School Leader Most important: reinvest in classrooms. Least important: high school before 8:00am School Leader One: Research shows that elementary students should begin school earlier and high schools should begin school later. Two: Reinvesting in Classrooms : Structuring the times I would hope would allow money to be redirected to classrooms School Leader Many are excited at the idea of investing in schools instead of buses My top priority is putting money back in the classrooms that will have the biggest and realest impact Student I believe BPS wastes millions in transportation. I would love to see improvements there and believe this would benefit parents and students more than anything Parent

We spend an obscene amount of money on buses, coming from around the city.... if we could save money on this, I think it would also allow us to reinvest into the city Teacher As long as the bells times for all of our three kids at different schools aren't at the same time, we can make the schedule work. I think just reducing the exorbitant cost of transportation costs at BPS is a worthy cause itself Parent I care about finding ways to decrease the 10% budget pit that is Boston's transportation expenses Parent 30 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard Especially if that investment was in before- or after- school programming and/or higher need schools Many parents called specifically for reinvestment in before- and / or after- school programming That said, I think what is often overlooked is how start and end times impact the individual family, including families' economics. Before care and after care add to each family's expenses and that isn't often discussed when talking about school budgets. When a child is in school starting at 7:15 and their parent works a 9-5 job, they can be in care for 11+ hours. The school day needs to work for working families--which most of us are -- Parent With the early start, we have to pay for after school care Parent Providing surround care (before and after school) to accommodate working parents is one of the best ways to keep families in Boston (and in BPS), and it can negate the differences between start and end times because care would be available at every school from 8 am - 6 pm Parent We need to increase the availability of extended day programs (before and after school) to bridge the gap so that families where both parents (or the sole parent) work 9-5 or longer can make it work Parent If BPS is going to insist on lengthening the day and forcing children to ride home in the dark, they should also invest money in worthwhile enrichment programs for the extra time. It is important to me that my 6 year old enjoys school and still has time and energy for other activities when school is out Parent The Quincy has an extremely robust before-school orchestra program, meeting from 8:00-9:30 every day. I would not want that program cut into--that is, I would not want the school start time made earlier Parent 31 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard We heard from parents and especially teachers against starting school after 9am (part 1 of 2) A longer school day from ELT makes a late start and a late end more difficult I'd rather have a high quality after school program that I can opt in and out of on different days of the week than a looooong school day every day Parent

What matters to me is the length of the day. These extra 40 minutes have drastically decreased student and teacher morale, and made school feel unbearable at times, which it hadn't in the past. It also results in students going from 8am to 1:40pm with no food, which is completely unreasonable! Teacher Personally this extended time has taken a toll on my personal life, my time with my family. I am unhappy, stressed, in traffic much longer and not leading a life that is filled with quality Teacher Longer school days are taking away learning time from children both inside and outside of the classroom I can't emphasize enough how challenging it is to education 3-8 year olds with high needs at 4:00 in the afternoon. Nothing about that model is good for kids Principal Start times should be practical for working parents. A 9:30 start time is impractical if a parent has to be at work at 9am and the child is too young to get to school alone Parent As a late start school we are constantly interrupted by families who are picking up their children earlier in the day to make it to extracurricular activities Principal We are missing out on valuable learning time by starting school at 9:30. Our students are not able to stay focused until 4:10. Also-so many students are missing out on extracurricular activities including time spent with family and at home because of getting out of school so late. Earlier start times would allow for many of these problems to be alleviated Teacher The late dismissal leaves no after school play time for her and rather its all business when she gets home for homework, dinner and bed. There is no time for her to just be a kid outside of school Parent 32 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard We heard from parents and especially teachers against starting school after 9am (part 2 of 2) A late dismissal inconveniences many teachers and may result in them transferring schools or leaving the district 9:30-4:30 prevents teachers from being able to pick up their own children from other schools in other districts Teacher Most teachers have families that they need to go home to. If we were to start later and get out later, that would be additional funds teachers would have to spend on child care. Additional, teachers who are currently taking night classes at universities, would no longer be able to attend the night classes Teacher For me, traffic is the most important issue around school start times. The later the school day, the worse the traffic driving home (my commute home has doubled this year with the 3:20 end time) Teacher Because appointments are typically only available until 4 or 4:30, teachers have been taking sick/personal time during the school day Teacher We've had one staff member relocate to a different building because of the late start and others have expressed that they may also do this Teacher Early start times allow us to work more productively. It also allows for early starts for professional development Teacher From the result of an unofficial poll among staff in our building, around half the staff is seriously considering leaving the building and/or school system, strictly due to scheduling issues Teacher

33 BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Appendix: What Weve Heard Survey data shows that start and end times are important to parents but a comparatively low priority How important are each of the following attributes when picking a school? 100% 89% 90% 82% 81% 74% 74% 73% 80% 68% 65% 65% 65% 70% 61% 56% 55% 55% 53% 52% 52% 52% 60% 49% 46% 50% 40% 37% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% s s s s h g e is rs s) y) ts rd W es

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c o o r g s a s i e S e u u e e n l e h l l o d y rr H nd to st he as nt d d rm or nc lb lin ed d test tio kc pr

et en Cl s( is ac t a racu ip of ou nifo an dua or hb da s an oo ool e d l af e s c c t t g t n h y s n o t s s a w i e x h an den

ra Am l u sc kf di ra er er d s it ol ho to ta ne sc dv d re att u nt er ch nt g ce of ea sc ch ar ho r a t oo nt n o 's r t v e

t a n l a c i S y e a e e b o S ch e D ts h m d it ft th te en te ls r va n l o l i r S t d a l

u o d f d f o a o h o u f o u a d St si se ho sc sw St Sp yo yo nr St Qu d od an lo en Sc er li t c o he si t p

an g e e e h f a t r r s w f ac ve fo ge fe Qu Su le Ho te yo Di ol ua t sa Be f i C g l a n w ro la Ho Qu be s( m

am Nu gr o pr ic m e Bell times are certainly important but are not at the top (or ad Ac close to the top) of what parents say they care about Very important Total close to the top) of what parents say they care about Source: Preliminary survey data from Boston Schools Fund / Mass Inc Poll of 431 Boston Parents 34

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