www.eff.org

www.eff.org

ALPR What is it? Automated license plate readers (ALPRs) are computer-controlled, highspeed camera systems that automatically capture images of license plates that come into view. ALPR Components

ALPR systems are made up of 3 major components: 1. The high speed cameras Some models can photograph up to 1,800 license plates every minute Every week, law enforcement agencies across the country use these cameras to collect data on millions of license plates. 2. The application that translates the

photos to alphanumeric entries 3. The database of ALPR entries ALPR Cameras Types of ALPR Cameras: Stationary - fixed locations, like streetlights Hybrid/Semi-stationary - like truck trailers

Mobile usually police vehicles. Photos: Mike Katz-Lacabe CC BY How do ALPRs work? After a camera captures an image of a car and its surroundings, the image of the license plate is converted into alphanumeric data

How do ALPRs work? ALPRs relay the precise date, time and place where a license plate was captured to a central database that can be searched by police departments, which then use the data to make traffic stops in real time or store it for future use. After a camera captures an image of the car and its surroundings, the license plate is converted into alphanumeric data that can

then be compared to vehicle registration data to identify the registered owner, make and model of the car. How do ALPRs work? The data is uploaded to a central database that is frequently shared across many jurisdictions. An investigator can search the historical travel patterns of a single

vehicle, generate a list of vehicles that were seen near particular locations, identify cars seen in proximity of each other, or Privacy Issues Historic location data may reveal intimate details about individuals, like: Where you work

Where you live & with whom What doctors you see Who you associate with What causes you care about Bias Issues EFF PRAs to Oakland PD show ALPRs target low-income communities of color.

Bias Issues EFF PRAs to Oakland PD show ALPR mainly deployed in low-income communities of color. Bias Issues EFF PRAs to Oakland PD show ALPR mainly deployed in low-income communities of color.

ALPR-related cases: 5th Circuit: Olabisiomotosho v. City of Houston , 185 F.3d 521, 529, (5th Cir. 1999): No REP in LP number 6th Circuit: US v Ellison (462 F.3d 557 (2006)): No REP in LP number 10th Circuit: US v. Walraven (892 F.2d 972 (1989)): No REP in LP b/c

ALPR-related cases: 9th Circuit: - US v. Diaz-Castaneda (494 F.3d 1146 (2007)): Court noted consensus among the circuits that singleinstance ALPR database check search - Green v. City & County of SF (751 F.3d 1039 (2014)): ALPR hit alone, without visual confirmation, is not RS for

traffic stop - US v. Yang (2018 WL 576827, but ALPR How do I fight ALPR evidence? File a discovery motion requesting ALPR results search parameters, any audits or updates of the ALPR

query system. ALPR How do I fight ALPR evidence? Where law enforcement fails to obtain a warrant for an ALPR search, file an MTS based on the arguments in our Yang amicus brief, which analogizes ALPR searches to the warrantless CSLI search in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case:

Carpenter v. United States. If you are in the 9th Circuit, a single, unverified ALPR match (i.e. software match without visual confirmation) does not justify a traffic stop (See Green). But in the Georgia Court of Appeals, an ALPR hit alone does justify a traffic stop (See Hernandez-Lopez v. State). ALPR

How do I fight ALPR evidence? Where law enforcement does obtain a warrant for an ALPR search, refer to our strategies for How to Challenge a CSLI Search. Challenge the foundation and authenticity of the proffered ALPR record(s). Rely on more privacy protective state ALPR

How do I learn more? ALPR basics: https://eff.org/ALPRprimer Blog on types of ALPR: https://eff.org/ALPRtypes ALPR FAQs: https://eff.org/ALPRFAQ

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