Multiprocessor network topologies EE 126 Computer Engineering Final Project Fanying Ye Contents Introduction

Overview Comparison of common approaches The future trends Conclusions

Introduction Image processing http://www.kitware.com/blog/files/128_579534278.jpg Weather computation http://blogs.siam.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/01/bunge2web.jpg Introduction Shared medium arbitrated bus[1]

Problems: Scalability Communicati on efficiency Power

consumption Introduction New concept: Network on chip (NoC)[2] Network topology The organization of the shared router nodes and channels in an on-chip network[1] Principal:

Power consumption Area Throughput Overview Classification 2D mesh in CLICHE Most common among all interconnection topologies

It allows incorporation of large number of IP cores in a regular-shape structure [1][2] Intels Teraflops Research Chip Network on a chip In addition to the compute element, each core contains a 5-port message passing router.

These are connected in a 2D mesh network that implement message-passing. 2D torus The switches at the edges are linked to the switches at the opposite edge through folded channels

The long end-around connections can generate excessive delays [1][3] 2D folded torus Excessive delay in torus can be avoided by folding the torus

It renders a more suitable VLSI implementation [1][3] Octagon It is designed to overcome the scalability problem as every node can expand into an octagon [1]

Binary Tree Each router node is linked to 2 nodes in the subsequent level The main problem : the single parent node especially the root can easily become traffic

bottlenecks [3] Fat tree in SPIN Fat tree: a node can have more than one parent. This model can alleviate the problem in binary tree.

Every node has four children and the parent is replicated four times at any level of the tree. [1] [3] BFT-Butterfly Fat-Tree Each router node is linked to either 4 routers or resource nodes. [1][2]

Comparison of Throughput BFT, CLICHE, and Folded Torus provide a lower throughput than do SPIN and Octagon [1] Comparison of Area Overhead SPIN and Octagon have a considerably higher silicon area overhead. [1] Comparison of Energy dissipation For uniform

traffic For localized traffic SPIN and Octagon have greater average energy dissipation at saturation than the others [1] Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages SPIN 2D-Mesh

1. 2. High throughput Good scalability Disadvantages 1.High silicon area overhead 2. Greater average energy dissipation 3. Wiring complexity Low throughput

2D-Torus Simple architecture with good scalability low power consumption Folded Torus Low power consumption Small delay

High silicon area overhead Octagon High throughput 1.High silicon area overhead 2. Greater average energy dissipation BFT Great Localization

Wiring complexity Excessive delay Future trend 3D-topology 3D-ICs can achieve better performances, more

flexibility, and higher throughput . [5] [7] Combining the NoC structure with the benefits of the 3D integration lead us to present 3D-NoC as a new architecture.[6] [8] Conclusion

NoC is an efficient on-chip communication architecture for SoC architectures. Topologies is a key factor in MP-NoC design. Some architectures can sustain very high data rates at the expense of high-energy dissipation and considerable silicon area overhead, while others can provide a lower data rate and lower energy dissipation levels.

With increasing number of processors in MP-SoC, the 3D topology will be the next hotspot in research. References [1] Pratim Pande, Cristian Grecu, Michael Jones, Andre Ivanov and Resve Saleh, Networks on Chips: A New SoC ParadigmPerformance Evaluation and Design Trade-Offs for Network-on-Chip Interconnect Architectures , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 54, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005 [2] T. Bjerregaard and S. Mahadevan, A survey of Research and Practice of Network-on-Chip, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 38, March 2006. [3] Tetala Neel Kamal Reddy, Ayas Kanta Swain, Jayant Kumar Singh and Kamala Kanta Mahapatra, PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT NETWORK-ON-CHIP TOPOLOGIES , 2014 2nd International Conference on Devices,

Circuits and Systems (ICDCS) [4] http://download.intel.com/pressroom/kits/Teraflops/Teraflops_Research_Chip_Overview.pdf [5] Csar Marcon, Ramon Fernandes, Rodrigo Cataldo, Fernando Grando, Thais Webber, Ana Benso, Letcia B. Poehls, Tiny NoC: A 3D Mesh Topology with Router Channel Optimization for Area and Latency Minimization, 2014 27th International Conference on VLSI Design and 2014 13th International Conference on Embedded System [6] K. Banerjee, S. J. Souri, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, 3-D ICs: A Novel Chip Design for Improving Deep-Submicrometer Interconnect Performance and Systems-on-Chip Integration, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 89, No. 5,pp. 602-633, May 2001. [7] Avik Bose, Prasun Ghosal, Saraju P. Mohanty, A Low Latency Scalable 3D NoC Using BFT Topology with Table Based Uniform Routing ,2014 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI , pp136 [8]Y.-L. Jeang et al. Mesh-Tree Architecture for Network-on-Chip Design. International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC), pp.1-4.2007.

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