Writing Formulas Naming Compounds - BPS District

Writing Formulas Naming Compounds - BPS District

Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Chapter 2 (2.6 and 2.7) Writing Names for Ionic Compounds Write the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion Ending of monatomic anions must be changed to ide Include Roman numerals for metals

that have variable charges Groups 1 & 2, Al, Zn, Ag, Cd do not need Roman Numerals Naming Hydrates The ONLY time that you use the numerical prefixes with ionic compounds is to indicate the number of water molecules attached to a hydrated ionic compound CuSO4 . 5H2O

copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate Oxides (O ) 2- Metals and nonmetal combine with oxygen to form oxides Examples: CaO is calcium oxide PtO2 is platinum (IV) oxide Peroxides (O2 )

2- Active metals (group 1 except Li, group 2 except Be & Mg) may combine with oxygen to form peroxides Each oxygen is 1 Example: CaO2 is calcium peroxide H2O2 is hydrogen peroxide; H can act as an active metal Superoxides (O2 ) -

Very active metals (K, Rb, Cs) may combine with oxygen to form superoxides Each oxygen is -1/2 Example: RbO2 is rubidium superoxide Name these Oxides KO2

potassium superoxide K2O2 potassium peroxide K2O potassium oxide Names and Formulas for

Binary Molecular Compounds Binary molecular compounds contain two elements. The most metallic element (i.e., the one farthest to the left on the periodic table) is usually written first. Exception: NH3 (ammonia) If both elements are in the same group, the lower one is written first. Example: SO2 Greek prefixes (page 63) are used to indicate the number of atoms (mono, di, tri).

The first letter is omitted when o-o or a-o combinations occur. The prefix mono is never used with the first element (Example: carbon monoxide, CO). Examples: Cl2O dichlorine monoxide N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide

NF3 nitrogen trifluoride P4S10 tetraphosphorus decasulfide Writing empirical formulas for ionic compounds You must combine cations and

anions in a ratio so that the total positive charge is equal to the total negative charge Use the criss cross method Binary Ionic Compounds Contain atoms of two elements Write the chemical formula by using the criss cross method CaI2

Subscripts must be reduced since an empirical formula shows the lowest whole number ratio of ions or atoms Ca2O2 must be reduced to CaO Ternary Ionic Compounds Contain atoms of three elements Parentheses must be

placed around polyatomic ions to separate the ion from the subscript when more than one ion is needed Ca(OH)2 Charges of Ions Group Charge

1 1+ 2 2+ 3 3+ 15 316 217 1- Names and Formulas of Acids The names of acids are related to the names of anions:

-ide becomes hydro- ...-ic acid; HCl hydrochloric acid -ate becomes ic acid; HClO4 perchloric acid -ite becomes ous acid. HClO hypochlorous acid

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