When and How to Use Footnotes, Chicago Style

When and How to Use Footnotes, Chicago Style

Extended Essays for History and Music Theory Teresa S. Neal, Ph.D. Available in A209 Welcome to come in to read any time, but essays are not to leave that room. Note: be sure to set up to meet with your supervisor on or before Friday, April 19. Chicago

Style uses subtitles (instead of chapters) for essays Bold and Left Justify Continue paragraphing without page break List subtitles in your table of contents restricting their efforts was absent. In addition, Richey points out, daughters inherited their fathers' pioneer spirit that had come from generations of pioneering blood, including the immigration from Europe.12 Most importantly, there were greater opportunities for these daughters to receive higher education. Differences in the Migration Experience The underlying contrast between the first and second generation, and what set them apart, was the migration process itself. Trail diaries and journals of early years of settlement reflect

the expectations, frustrations, and confusion of migration that was not present among the daughters who grew up in the West or the women who moved West on their own initiative. Elinor Richey, Eminent Women of the West (Berkeley: HowellNorth Books, 1975). 12 Bottom of the page Easy to see and access Disadvantage: Does not work on Internet with html (Must load pdf files)

May take too much of the page if footnotes are long or numerous Footnotes Lists at end of essay (or chapter) All notes viewable at once Works well for Internet publication

Disadvantage: less ease of use for reader Endnotes 3 basic reasons to use footnotes/endnotes: 1. Quoting material verbatim Keep to a minimum, especially in history essays Avoid block quotes (quotes of 4 or more lines) Generally, use only for primary sources Avoid quoting encyclopedias, dictionaries, textbooks

2. Using statistics For any use of numbers that are not commonly known Not necessary for dates, unless controversial 3. Acknowledging authorsspecific points and unique or controversial ideas When quoting phrases specifically, use quotation marks Lead in with name and qualification when summarizing historians work when paraphrasing specific ideas or points Generally, you need to cite only once at the

end of a series of sentences which reference the authors work Note number helps separate one authors ideas from anothers and from your own analysis Richey points out, daughters inherited their fathers' pioneer spirit that had come from generations of pioneering blood, including the immigration from Europe.12 Most importantly, there were greater opportunities for these daughters to receive higher education. Beverly Stoeltje describes this first type, the drudge, as the "refined lady"

who was placed upon a pedestal and upheld the Cult of True Womanhood but who could not adapt to the environment.5 This type of western woman has been popularized in literature with such characters as Ole Rolvaag's Beret Hansa who went crazy in the isolation and desolation of a snowbound Dakota frontier homestead. She was characterized in Larry McMurtry's novel Lonesome Dove as two separate characters. One was insane and the only woman to be found in an isolated fort in frontier Kansas. She sat rocking in a chair on the porch day after day, talking to no one, never cognizant of the real world. The other drudge was the prostitute Elmira who sacrificed everything including two sons to find and follow the only man she ever cared for. She found him in time for his hanging. After that her life meant nothing, and she carelessly set off across the plains even though she knew a vengeful tribe of Sioux would kill her.6 Fortunately, these women were a small minority. Beverly Stoeltje, " 'A Helpmate for Man Indeed ': The Image of the Frontier Woman," Journal of American Folklore 88 (January-March 1975), 25-41. 5

6Dick, The Sod House Frontier; Schlissel, Women's Diaries; Beverly Stoeltje, "A Helpmate for Man Indeed"; O. E. Rolvaag, Giants in the Earth (Harper & Brothers, 1927; reprinted, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1974); Larry McMurtry, Lonesome Dove (New York: Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, 1985). Evidence to indicate that these women were in the minority is provided by Sandra Myres, Westering Women and the Frontier Experience 1800-1915 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982). For Microsoft Word documents: Go to Insert in toolbar Click on Footnote Choose either footnote or endnote MS Word will move to the footer (or end of document) Type in your citation information Scroll back up to paragraphs and continue writing You will see a superscripted number

has been added Numerical order as it appears in essay Paragraph style indent Authors name: first, last Teresa S. Neal Info separated with

commas Publication info within parentheses Note Alphabetical order by authors last name, if known or by title if author unlisted Hanging indent Authors last name, title, first name Neal, Teresa S.

Info separated with periods Bibliography Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources) Note: Quintus Tullius Cicero. Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship, in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago

Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35. 8 Bibliography (should use hanging indent): Cicero, Quintus Tullius. Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship. In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 3346. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908). Diana Hacker OWL at Purdue for Chicago Style Nuts and Bolts for College Writing is no longer available

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