# Welcome to ECE 250 Algorithms and Data Structures

ECE 150 Fundamentals of Programming The structured programming theorem Douglas Douglas Wilhelm Wilhelm Harder, Harder, M.Math. M.Math. Prof. Prof. Hiren Hiren Patel, Patel, Ph.D. Ph.D. [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] 2018 2018 by by Douglas

Douglas Wilhelm Wilhelm Harder Harder and and Hiren Hiren Patel. Patel. Some Some rights rights reserved. reserved. The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Outline In this lesson, we will: Review the statements we have seen to this point Look at some very ugly flow charts apparently

implementable only with a goto statement Review theorems and present the structured programming theorem Look at some simple consequences based on flow charts See how to use the structured programming theorem when designing algorithms The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Background Youve seen used and observed numerous applications, some of which may amaze you You ask yourself, how can you do something like this? The answer: Libraries and the structured programming theorem Joust, Williams Electronics Fortnite, Epic Games

The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Background The C++ language is very complex, and for many and good reasons There are many features designed to support the development of software The C++ standard costs 198 Swiss Francs (~266 CAD) and is over 1600 pages Most of you will never master the languageand thats okay No instructor has, either The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem

theorem Background In your mathematics courses, you have seen a few theorems: A theorem is a statement must be true if a given set of premises are true Examples: Euclids theorem There are infinitely many prime numbers The Pythagorean theorem If a, b, and c are sides of a right-angled triangle, and c is the side opposite the right angle, then a2 + b2 = c2 The remainder theorem If a polynomial p(x) is divided by (x r) , the remainder is p(r) The factor theorem

The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The flow charts so far To this point, we have described: Blocks of statements {statement; } Conditional statements if ( condition ) {} else {} while loops while ( condition ) {} The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem

The flow charts so far It is possible, when designing algorithms, to come up with flow charts that cannot be built up from these three statements For example, consider: The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The flow charts so far It is always possible to use goto statements to implement any flow chart first: if ( condition-1 ) { goto second; } else {

goto third; } second: if ( condition-2 ) { goto third; } else { goto first; } third: if ( condition-3 ) { goto first; } Identifiers can be used as labels The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The flow charts so far The use of the goto maintenance issues

statement leads to serious Code becomes more difficult to understand, analyze, debug, extend or otherwise maintain Your costs will go up, your profits will go down The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The flow charts so far Worse yet: you will never be able to let those programmers who authored that atrocious code go:

Worst of all: any solution to an assignment or examination question that contains a goto statement will receive a grade of 0 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Its rocket science Even the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has included this rule: Rule 11 (simple control flow) The goto statement shall not be used. 1

The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The structured programming theorem Fortunately, the following theorem says we dont need any more: Any program that can be written can be written using flow charts that combine only the three statements we have seen to this point 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem

The structured programming theorem Consequences: You understand most of the tools already When you learn a new programming language, first understand how to write: conditional statements, and while loops When you tackle a problem that require the repetition of a given set of operations, think in terms of a while loop: We must perform this set of instructions while this condition is true 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem

Equivalent flow charts These flow charts are equivalent The left cannot be implemented using a while loop, the right can 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Equivalent flow charts These flow charts are also equivalent The left cannot be implemented using a while loop, but using the logical AND operator, the right can 1

The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Equivalent flow charts These flow charts are also equivalent The left cannot be implemented using a while loop, but using the logical OR operator, the right can 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Equivalent flow charts

These flow charts are also equivalent The left cannot be implemented using a while loop, but using a temporary Boolean variable, the right can 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Equivalent implementations Compare these implementations of an algorithm for void unstructured( double array[], size_t capacity sorting an array: ) { void structured( double array[], size_t capacity ) start: if ( capacity == 0 ) { return; {

} while ( capacity > 0 ) { size_t n = 0; size_t n = 0; size_t k = 1; size_t k = 1; double max = array[0]; double max = array[0]; while ( k < capacity ) { if ( max < array[k] ) { array[k - 1] = max; max = array[k]; } else { array[k - 1] = array[k]; n = k; } ++k; } array[k - 1] = max; capacity = n; } } next: if ( k == capacity ) {

array[k - 1] = max; capacity = n; goto start; } if ( max < array[k] ) { array[k - 1] = max; max = array[k]; } else { array[k - 1] = array[k]; n = k; } ++k; goto next; 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Moral of the story

You will not be required to seriously investigate the structured programming theorem or to prove two flow charts are equivalent Use this as a guide to designing algorithms: Always think in terms of looping while some condition is true Understand when you need to terminate the loop Always ask Boolean-valued questions, either for while loops or conditional statements 1 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem The flow charts so far

To go back to our first example: bool flag_1{ true }; while ( flag_1 ) { bool flag_2{ false }; if ( condition-1 ) { // Block A if ( condition-2 ) { // Block E flag_2 = true; } else { // Block C } } else { // Blcok B flag_2 = true; } if ( flag_2 ) { if ( condition-3 ) { // Block D } else { flag_1 = false; } }

} B A C D E first: if ( condition-1 ) { // Block A goto second; } else { // Block B goto third; } second: if ( condition-2 ) { // Block E goto third; } else { // Block C goto first; }

third: if ( condition-3 ) { // Block D goto first; } 2 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Summary Following this lesson, you now: Understand that you should never use a goto statement Understand the consequences of the structured

programming theorem Know that conditional and while loops are all you need Understand that flow charts can be rewritten to allow them to be implemented using these statements We saw logical operators and Boolean flags 2 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem References [1] Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_program_theorem 2 The Thestructured structuredprogramming

programmingtheorem theorem Colophon These slides were prepared using the Georgia typeface. Mathematical equations use Times New Roman, and source code is presented using Consolas. The photographs of lilacs in bloom appearing on the title slide and accenting the top of each other slide were taken at the Royal Botanical Gardens on May 27, 2018 by Douglas Wilhelm Harder. Please see https://www.rbg.ca/ for more information. 2 The Thestructured structuredprogramming programmingtheorem theorem Disclaimer These slides are provided for the ECE 150 Fundamentals of

Programming course taught at the University of Waterloo. The material in it reflects the authors best judgment in light of the information available to them at the time of preparation. Any reliance on these course slides by any party for any other purpose are the responsibility of such parties. The authors accept no responsibility for damages, if any, suffered by any party as a result of decisions made or actions based on these course slides for any other purpose than that for which it was intended. 2

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