Warm-up: #2

Warm-up: #2

ROME ROMES BEGINNINGS Legends Much of Romes early history comes from legends. The legends may not be totally accurate but

are useful in giving the qualities and values the early Romans admired. Romulus Founder of Rome in 753 BCE First of seven kings Started Romes first

army and government Numa Pompilius Romes second king Brought peace to Rome Founded Romes religion Etruscans

Romes powerful neighbors to the north from Etruria Were wealthy traders Controlled Rome from 575 509 BCE Gave the Romans their alphabet and the arch Rome becomes a walled city with paved roads

Built Circus Maximus, Temple of Jupiter, Cloaca Maxima Tarquin the Proud Seventh and last king Was cruel and terrorized his people Ignored the Senate 509 BCE Romans rebel

and send him into exile GEOGRAPHY of ROME 1)Rome was a city-state in Italy 2)Romes climate is a Mediterranean climate with summers being

hot and dry and winters being wet and mild 3) known as Latins, spoke Latin, were herders and farmers, harvested wheat, grapes, and olives 4) Etruscan city-states were to the north of Rome and south of

Rome were Greek colonies 5) Built on hills made it hard to attack On Tiber River transportation route, resources 15 miles from the sea safe from

others navies and storms Center of Italy could easily get to other places in Italy and in the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum means our sea eventually Rome controls all of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea

Roman Daily Life POOR ROMAN WEALTHY ROMAN Kids worked Adults had several jobs and women worked ~ tended to livestock and

grew crops, did construction work and sold goods at the market, etc. Ate simple meals from the thermopolia ~ takeout Sat on wooden benches far away at events Lived in one/two room apartments in tall apartment buildings in the city In the country they lived in shacks

Kids went to school Had a high, well paid job and wives ran the household and may also have a business job Ate elaborate meals and meals from the thermopolia Tried not to travel at night because of the crime Had box seats for events and were close up

Would go on trips/vacations Had lots of luxury items Homes were made of stone or marble May own a country estate THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

PATRICIANS The upper class wealthy landowners Very small group 5% of the population Chose the kings advisors Controlled the most

valuable land, held the key military and religious offices

PLEBEIANS The lower class peasants, laborers, artisans, shopkeepers Very large group 95% of the population Very few privileges and say Paid most of the taxes and served in

the army. A Republic form of governments purpose is to serve the people. It was established in Rome when the Patricians overthrew the last monarch/king Tarquin the Proud because King Tarquin wanted more power and was cruel. The Conflict of the Orders is when the Plebeians demanded more political rights because the

Patricians were controlling almost everything since Tarquins removal. Some Major Differences Between the Patricians and the Plebeians Patricians could only be consuls or senators, they made and interpreted the laws, small group, wealthy, etc. Plebeians paid the heavy

taxes, were the soldiers, had no political powers, were the labor force, large group The conflict between the Plebeians and the Patricians was resolved over time by the Plebeians would leave Rome and refuse to work or serve in the military and the Patricians would compromise with the Plebeians by giving them some power and say in the government each time

this happened. Rights gained by the Plebeians over the years: Tribunes of the Plebs to represent their interests to the Senate Council of Plebs that could make laws only about themselves All laws were written down The Twelve Tables

One consul had to be a plebeian in this way it was possible for a plebeian to become a senator Eventually could make laws that everyone (patricians and plebeians) must obey/follow The Roman Republic CONSULS

One patrician and one plebeian Head/leaders of the Republic Run the day to day affairs of Rome and command its army SENATORS Three hundred patricians and ex-plebeian

consuls They can make and veto laws about everyone Advised the consuls Tribunes of the Plebs Ten plebeians who represent plebeian interests to the senate Advised the consuls

They can make and veto laws about everyone Citizens Assemblies Made up of all adult male Roman citizens Nominated people to be the consuls, to be members of the senate, and to be a Tribunes of the Plebs Approved or rejected all new laws

ROMES EXPANSION 509 264 BCE All of Italy Defeated other Latin neighbors, Etruscans,

and Greek colonies Rome was looted and burnt down Fought Punic Wars North Africa 264 against Carthage and Spain,

Sicily destroyed them Macedonia 146 BCE Greece 145 46 BCE 46 BCE

on Asia Minor Egypt Gaul Controlled land around Mediterranean and named it our sea

Pushed borders to natural boundaries Added other territories Republic government falls, Emperors rule, Octavian was the first

emperor, stretches from Britain to past the Red and Black Seas 1) took great pride in their Republic and defended it 2) treated conquered groups as allies which led them to be loyal 3) the Roman army was large, disciplined and experienced

4) military success was greatly valued and admired by Romans 5) winning wars was a great source of wealth to the Romans land, valuables, slaves, etc. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

6) 7) 8) 9) Soldiers were farmers away fighting Wealthy bought up land High numbers of unemployed and poor Slaves taking jobs and rebelling Large gap between rich and poor

Greedy, dishonest government leaders Conflicts between rich and poor Army began to only fight for generals Civil War to control government The Republic falls after Julius Caesar wins a three year Civil War and declares himself dictator. After that Rome is governed by Emperors. The Fall of the Roman Empire

Economic Reasons High taxes wiped out the middle class Trade and businesses went down High unemployment due to slave labor Political Reasons All of the fighting to be emperor Many different Emperors over a short time span

Social Reasons Crime Moral decay Lack of interest in the government Military Reasons Army grew weak People did not enlist Recruited nonRomans to defend

them Army became undisciplined ROMAN CONTRIBUTIONS Architecture Buildings Aqueducts Roads

Authors/Writers Cicero Horace

Virgil Livy Plutarch Law Justinian Code ~ all people are equal and you are innocent until proven guilty Language Latin is the basis for

the Romance languages (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian) Given us many of our English words we use

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