Using the Building Blocks Model to Provide Specially Designed ...
Using the Building Blocks Approach to Meet the Needs of Young Children with Autism and Related Disorders Ilene Schwartz University of Washington [email protected] Great resources on Head Start Center on Inclusion Website http://depts.washington.edu/hscenter/ Building Blocks Educational practices Designed to help teachers
include and teach young children with disabilities and other special needs Why Building Blocks? To understand how teachers and teams create early childhood classrooms that enable all children to participate, interact and learn important and valued outcomes. To understand what practices work in everyday classrooms. To understand the instructional strategies needed to provide inclusive settings Big Questions What does
inclusion mean? Individuals define inclusion differently. Inclusion is about belonging and participating in a diverse society. What does it mean for a young child to be successful in an early childhood classroom? Sense of belonging Genuine child
learning Opportunities to build friendships Using the Building Blocks model can help all children participate, learn, and thrive in their classrooms. Child-focused Instructional Strategies Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum modifications & adaptations
Quality Early Childhood Program What is SDI SDIs are important to help children with disabilities participate fully with their typical peers SDI's fall into two categories: accommodations and modifications. Some people use the terms interchangeably, but legally they are not the same. Accommodations These are changes in the way in which the child is treated in order to best accommodate the child's physical,
cognitive or emotional challenges Modifications These change the academic or curricular demands made of a child to better fit the child's ability. Planning: Special Education IFSPIEP Goals/Objectives Activity Matrix Theme Activities & Materials
Problem: Planning is only occurring at an individual level Classroom goals and group needs are not being recognized Learning for children who are typically developing and children with special needs in non-service areas is not a focus Planning IFSPIEP Goals/Objectives Activity Matrix Special Instruction
Theme Activities & Materials Benchmarks Curriculum/ Classroom Goals General Instruction Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum modifications & adaptations Quality Early Childhood Program
Embedded Learning Opportunities Teachers create short teaching episodes within ongoing classroom activities and routines. Teaching episodes focus on a childs individual learning objective. Keys to Embedded Instruction Know the childs objectives Plan materials and activities that give opportunities to work on objectives Give access to reinforcing consequences
Embedded instruction can be accomplished by: Identifying the target behavior Deciding when and where to apply embedded instruction Using an individual Instructional Plan Monitoring learning Other Important Factors Keep the activities simple Plan the instruction (presenting an opportunity is not the same as teaching) Activity Matrix When/ where instruction will occur
Helps teacher ensure that instruction occurs Reminds the staff of the activities and individual child objectives Foundation for planning Individually Appropriate Activities Developing an Activity Matrix Look at the childs objectives and determine: During what activities will we be able to provide instruction Do we have adequate opportunities for instruction across all children on the matrix When is it feasible to collect data on these objectives
Decide when and where to embed instruction Develop an Activity Matrix Individual Classroom Make sure sufficient opportunities occur Individual Child Activity Matrix Childs Name: Date: Teacher or Classroom: TargetBehavior 1*
TargetBehavior 2 Target Behavior 3 TargetBehavior 4 TargetBehavior 5 Schedule *Individual children will have varying numbers of target behaviors smaller as needed to address the individual childs plan. Need to include copyright information that are currently identified for instruction. Simply make the matrix larger or
Individual Child Activity Matrix Childs Name: J esse Date: 10/ 4/ 04 Teacher or Classroom: Target Behavior 1 * Will answer quest ions f rom peers TargetBehavior 2
Will t ouch and count Target Behavior 3 Will f ollow rout ine TargetBehavior 4 Will answer up t o 5 object s directions given t o group comprehension quest ions when
TargetBehavior 5 Will drink f romcup looking at st orybook Schedule ** X Arrival X Free choice Class meeting X
Small group X X X Outdoor time X Snack X
X X Story and music Departure X *Individual children will have varying numbers of smaller as needed to address the individual child X target behaviors s plan. that are currently identified for instruction. Simply make the matrix larger or
**This is a sample schedule. Teachers and classrooms will write in their own schedule of activities and routines. Need to include copyright information Classroom Activity Matrix Teacher or Classroom: Date: Child 1 * Child 2 Child 3 Child 4
Child 5 Schedule *The Classroom Activity M atrix may include the names of all the children in the class or only the names of children who have individually identified objectives. Make the matrix as large as needed for your group of students. Need to include copyright information Classroom Activity Matrix Teacher or Classroom: Date: Child 1* J esse Child 2
Maria Child 3 Kyo Child 4 J amal Schedule Arrival Free choice - f ollow gr oup dir ect ions - answer st orybook quest ions
- answer questions Class meeting f r om peers - f ollow gr oup dir ect ions - answer questions Small group f r om peers - t ouch and count up t o 5 obj ect s Outdoor time
- t ouch and count up t o 5 obj ect s - t ouch and count up Snack t o 5 obj ect s - drink f rom cup Story an d music - answer st orybook quest ions - answer questions
Departure f r om peers - f ollow gr oup dir ect ions * Make the matrix as large as needed for your group of students. Need to incl ude copyright information All individual targ et behaviors will be filled in for each child. Child 5 Alana
Difference between embedded instruction and teachable moments Embedded Instruction Planned Driven by childs learning objective Ensuring instruction occurs Systematic progress monitoring Teachable Moments Spontaneous
Driven by the moment Taking advantage of an opportunity Progress monitoring driven by opportunity Instructional Plans How will we teach the skills Based on: Childs Objectives Activity Matrix Individual Learning Styles Modified based on data
Instructional Plan Childs name Date Current objective Toys, materials, other equipment Selected activities or routines
Antecedents Target behavior Consequence Plan for data collection Intervention Plan Childs Name: J esse Date: 10/ 4/ 04 Current Objective: When asked to count the (obj ects), J esse will touch and count the obj ects in sets up 5 correctly on at least 4 of 5 opportunities.
Materials: Any countable items such as blocks, children, spoons, trucks Activities and Routines: Frequency: Small group time; snack; outdoor time Try to have J esse practice 3 or 4 times at each activity. Antecedent What the Teacher will Say or Do 1. Small group time Target Behavior What the Child will Say or Do Touches and counts the obj ects.
Place 1-5 obj ects in f ront of J esse. Count the (obj ects). 2. S nack Place 1-5 bowls, utensils or f ood items in f ront of J esse. Count the (obj ects). Consequence How the Teacher or Environment will Respond I f correct, acknowledge J esses counting and let him hold the obj ects. I f incorrect, say Lets try that again, count the (obj ects). Point to t he obj ects and
touch and count with J esse. Touches and counts the obj ects. I f no response, ignore, give another child a turn, return to J esse. I f correct, acknowledge J esses counting and let him assist with snack. I f incorrect, say Lets try that again, count the (obj ects). Point to t he obj ects and touch and count with him. I f no response, ignore, give another child a turn, return to J esse. Data Collection How will progress be monitored
Must be sustainable (i.e., able to maintain it over time) Must be reasonable (i.e., realistic endeavor allowing for instruction and evaluation) Must be used by all staff Embedded Instruction & Assessment Assessment of functional skills in a natural environment Opportunities to provide instruction and assess skills are planned and consistent Addresses multiple skills or domains in single activities (time saver)
Embedded Instruction & Assessment Performed in classroom and during the typical routine rather than a separate environment or one-on-one context Provides natural motivation to encourage children to demonstrate skills Aides in the assessment of generalization and maintenance of skills Monitoring Progress Keep track of each childs progress Keep track regularly Counts
Notes Products Adjust as needed Integrity checklists Delight in your childrens learning! Child Focused Instructional Strategies Child-focused Instructional Strategies Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum modifications & adaptations Quality Early Childhood Program Child Focused Instructional
Strategies Used when children need specialized instruction to make progress on a targeted goal Involve use of evidence-based instructional strategies Specific strategies chosen based on child strengths and areas of need Prompting Techniques Something the teacher does that increases the likelihood of correct responding by the child Prompting happens BEFORE the childs response Allows you to get responses that you can
reinforce Menu of Prompts Common prompts Model Gesture Verbal Partial and full physical Other types of prompts Pictorial
Mixed prompts Prompt Fading Once a prompt is added, it must also be systematically faded Prompts can be faded by: Time Constant Time Delay - fading prompts by increasing the amount of time between direction and prompt Prompt Fading Amount of assistance provided Most-to-Least - progressively less intrusive prompts until the child responds independently
Least-to-Most- Provide progressively more intrusive prompts until the child responds independently Reinforcement What is a reinforcer? A reinforcer is a consequence you give to the child that increases the likelihood of a behavior happening again. It can include food, materials, activities, people, or words Positive Reinforcement: Helps children understand their behavior has an effect on their environment Can help children build self-esteem
Use Reinforcement Effectively Make reinforcement contingent on appropriate behavior Give reinforcement immediately after the behavior you want to happen again Use social praise that describes the appropriate behavior
Vary reinforcers Reinforcers are individual to each child Begin teaching new tasks with a continual reinforcement schedule Thin the schedule of tangible reinforcement (do not discontinue praise) -- variable schedules of reinforcement build the most durable behaviors Discrete Trial Teaching Instruction Prompt if
necessary Childs Response Consequence Discrete Trial Teaching Break skills into smaller parts Success with variety of skills Addresses deficits Attention Motivation Observational Learning Communication
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