UNIT 2 WHO AM I? You will need: Unit 2 Student Booklet BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND BEHAVIOUR
Everything we do, from blinking reflexively to falling madly in love, has a biological basis. TASK Complete How Do We Receive and Process Info You may need to use your phone or a dictionary to look up some of
the words. FOUR ASPECTS OF BEING Physical Emotional Social Mental
PHYSICAL Aspect of Being PHYSICAL Growth and change in a persons body Genetic, nutritional, and health factors Motor skills
Social and cultural factors Duration of breast feeding, education, attitudes about ideal body shape, etc. SENSORY SYSTEM Sensation Translating outside information into activity in the nervous system (receiving information) Taste
Smell Hearing Touch Vision SENSORY SYSTEM Perception Uses information from your senses and from your experiences to create
meaning EXTRA SENSORY PERCEPTION (MEAN GIRLS CLIP) Telepathy Transfer thought from one person to another
Clairvoyance Ability to recognize objects or events that are not present to normal sensory receptors Precognition Unexplained knowledge about future events Psychokinesis
Ability to move objects by using ones mental powers IS ESP REAL? Experimental support for the existence of ESP is weak Mental powers cannot be verifie by experimental manipulations Answer: unknown
MAGIC OR MENTAL POWERS? ENDOCRINE SYSTEM A bunch of glands that produce hormones. Hypothalamus Regulates bodys blood sugar Controls eating and hunger
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Pituitary Gland Master gland Hormone production Controls other endocrine glands Controls activity of the gonads Regulates timing and amount of body growth Stimulates milk production in females
Regulates excretion of water ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Thyroid Regulates the rate of metabolism Controls growth Parathyroid Regulates levels of calcium and phosphate
that play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Adrenal Gland Produces epinephrine (important in reactions to stress) Epinephrine = AKA Adrenaline Produces hormones that promote the
release of sugar stored in the liver ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Pineal Gland Secretes melatonin (hormone that helps you feel sleepy) Reduces activity, increases fatigue Reproductive Glands
Produce hormones responsible for features/changes that appear during puberty in males and females Regulates aspects of pregnancy (women) and sperm production and sex drive (men) ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Pancreas Produces hormones such as insulin that regulate metabolism
HORMONES Adjust amount of salt, water, and sugar in your tissues and blood Produce long-term changes (ex. growth) and rhythmic changes (ex. Menstrual cycle) Trigger responses in the body during illness, injury, or danger Involved in powerful emotions (angry, fear, joy,
despair) chemical messengers move through bloodstream TASK Complete the Hormones Assignment. TASK Complete the Endocrine System
Webquest. EMOTIONAL Aspect of Being EMOTIONAL Development of emotions, temperament, and social skills.
Influenced by family, friends, the community, the culture, and society Personal values, gender roles, family structure BIOLOGY OF AN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE Behavioural Actions
Autonomic Changes in the activity of the nervous system Hormonal Secretions of hormones reinforces autonomic responses
EXAMPLE You hear your burglar alarm go off in the middle of the night. Behavioural Wake up, grab blunt object, scream Autonomic Heart rate increases, more circulation to muscles
Hormonal Adrenaline is produced, further increases heart rate and blood flow MOTIVATION Factors that influence initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behaviour
MOTIVATION 3 Aspects of Motivation Drives Hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, and sex Learned Motives Money, score goals, ace a test Needs
Physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem, selfactualization MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS SOURCES OF MOTIVATION Personal Factors
Social Factors Cognitive Factors Biological Factors EMOTION A temporary experience with negative or positive qualities Generated by mental assessment of a situation
Accompanied by learned and innate physical responses PRIMARY EMOTIONS Anger Disgust Sadness Surprise Fear
Acceptance Joy Anticipation EMOTIONS VS. FEELINGS Emotions are: More momentary Intense
Behavioural disorganization Survival strategies Non-habitual Reactive to certain situations INNATE OR LEARNED? Some facial expressions are innate (study a baby) Emotional Culture
The learned rules of emotional expression appropriate to a culture The same emotion may have two different facial expressions in two different cultures Other peoples emotional expressions guide someone as to what to do or what not to do. ATTITUDES
Long lasting patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects. Based on experiences Shape future behaviour TYPES OF ATTITUDES Cognitive Beliefs about rewards/punishments
Pros and cons Head over heart Affective Feelings Heart over head Behavioural Based on perception
How you feel is based on performance or activity PURPOSE OF ATTITUDES Utilitarian Lead to greater reward and fewer costs Social Gain approval/acceptance
Knowledge Helps us make sense of the world Ego-defensive Protect people from becoming aware of harsh uncomfortable truths about themselves and the world Value-expressive
Demonstrates our uniqueness ATTITUDE CHANGE Attitudes change through persuasion. Friendly persuasion Admirable/knowledgable/beautiful people link ideas to good feelings Coercive persuasion
Suppress an individuals ability to reason (ex. Cults, gangs) Under emotional/physical duress Problems reduced to one simple explanation Leader offers unconditional love/acceptance New group identity Subject to entrapment Access to information is controlled KEY FACTORS IN
ATTITUDE CHANGE Communicator is trustworthy and honest Convincing, logical argument Use effective type of communication Audience influence The easiest audience to influence are young people with low self-esteem, low
SOCIAL PERCEPTION Guessing other peoples motives and intentions from observing their behaviour and its cause. People come to know and evaluate one another SOCIAL PERCEPTION
FORMATION Quick effortless judgements based on appearance, facial expressions, and body language OR Careful observations of behaviour FIRST IMPRESSIONS People tend to overestimate the role
of personal factors (forget about situational factors) Self-fulfilling prophesy Our first impression shapes the way we treat someone This influences their behaviour (they behave according to your expectations) STEREOTYPES
Fixed, overly simplified, often incorrect ideas about traits, attitudes, and behaviours of a group of people PREJUDICE A negative evaluation of an entire group of people Based on stereotypes
Based on a small sample of experience OR no direct experience TASK Watch Borrow a Stereotype. Complete the Living Library assignment after watching the video.
MENTAL Aspect of Being MENTAL All mental processes that are used to obtain knowledge or become aware of the environment Perception Imagination
Judgement Memory Language Processes used to think, decide, and learn CORE FUNCTIONS OF THOUGHT Describe
Elaborate Decide Plan Guide action MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS Cognitive Maps Images
Concept schemas Categories of objects, events, or ideas with common properties Scripts Schemas about familiar sequences of events or activities) SOCIAL COGNITION
Making sense of the events, people, oneself, and the world through analysis and interpretation. Judgements formed help people interpret social behaviour. INTERPRETING BEHAVIOUR Limited capacity to process
information about the social world Take cognitive short cuts (such as stereotyping) to minimize the load Develop schemas that represent our knowledge about self, others, and roles These schemas bias our judgements about ourselves and others.
MENTAL SHORTCUTS Representativeness Individuals or events that appear to be representative of other members of a group are quickly classified as such Availability Ease of association with existing knowledge Ex. Serial positioning effect (airplane example)
False Consensus Effect People tend to believe that others agree with them Framing The way info is organized and represented determines whether it will be accepted, rejected, or ignored FRAMING EXAMPLES A 95% effective' condom appears more effective
than one with 5% failure rate.' Considering two packages of ground beef, most people would pick the one labeled, "80% lean" over the one labeled, "20% fat." The question: "How do you feel about Obama's policies?" may get very different answer distribution than the question: "Compared to the rule of Satan, how do you feel about Obama's policies?"
LEARNING Behaviour changed by experience Only observed through change in behaviour BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR LEARNING Genetic differences Boys and girls are taught different behaviours on
the playground Psychologist argue: Boys are more independent and aggressive Ex. Boys usually dont go to the bathroom in small herds Girls are typically more cooperative Girls are typically better at group work and creative thinking
WAYS OF IMPROVING LEARNING Elaborating Translating concepts into ones own language and relating new ideas to old ones Attention Staying on task
Organization Developing skills that allow concept formation in an orderly manner Scheduling Routine times for studying WAYS OF IMPROVING LEARNING
Managing Anxiety Focus anxiety on getting a task done (not paralyzed/inactive) Expecting Success Rather than failure Note Taking Acquire skills necessary to take notes (not copy word for word)
Learning in groups Develop good cooperative learning styles MEMORIES Include memories of specific things and abstract memories of dispositions, traits, and characteristics.
Can be influenced by expectation or theory about what should have happened. ROLE OF MEMORY Assumptions and schema influence the memory that is retrieved A memory of a person will include things that the person has said or done and more
abstract memories of what a person was like Our memory of past events can be influenced by our expectation or theory about what should have happened STORING EXPERIENCES Schemas represent our knowledge about ourselves, others, and our roles within the
social world These schemas bias our judgements about ourselves and others Schemas become more complex and organized over time (and harder to change) SCHEMA EXAMPLE Cup example.
IMPROVING MEMORY Remembering a list of items Use mneumonics Meaningful acronyms Associating items with familiar locations (ex. Your home) Remembering textbook material SQ3R
Survey, question, read, recite, review Read actively, not passively Taking lecture notes Record main points Think about overall organization of the material (big picture) Studying for exams Write a detailed outline of your notes to study
INTELLEGENCE The overall capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment Concept of intelligence is determined by culture
TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Body-kinesthetic Personal
TASK Take the multiple intelligences test. Use your results to complete the MIT Assignment. Remember: Its not how smart are you; its how are your smart? SPIRITUAL
Aspect of Being SPIRITUAL Our connection to God or some spiritual power outside ourselves Supplies meaning to our lives Try to understand the mystery at the core of our being Fuels the drive to express ourselves
artistically WORLD VIEW Description of reality that provides a natural and believable knowledge which is generally accepted by a cultural group Meets our needs, creates order, and provides a basis for predictions
WORLDVIEW Includes: Spiritual beliefs Moral beliefs (ex. Rights and obligations) Intellectual beliefs Economic beliefs Political beliefs
VALUES Guiding principles in ones life BELIEFS, VALUES, AND ATTITUDES CREDO A statement of personal beliefs and
values TASK Create your credo. This can take the form of a statement (2-3 paragraphs), a short vlog (2-3 minutes), or an artistic expression (with a 1 paragraph write up).
MORALS AND ETHICS Morality and ethical decisions making are influenced by a variety of factors. Our view of human nature The value we put on human life Our view of purpose of life The significance we give death and dying Whether we think we will face rewards and
punishments for our actions in this life or some future life TASK Complete the Me, Myself, and I Mini-Project. PERSONALITY
Who We Are and Why PERSONALITY The consistent patterns of thinking and behaving that make you different from and, in some ways, similar to others.
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Psychodynamic People are partly controlled by the unconscious portion of the personality Personality traits remain relatively stable and are predictable over time Personality traits remain relatively stable across diverse situations
No two people are exactly alike in all traits PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Cognitive-Behavioural Sum total of the behaviours and cognitive habits that develop as people learn through experience in the social world
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Phenomenological (Humanistic) The primary human motivator is an innate drive toward personal growth that prompts people to fulfill their unique and natural potential Each individual perceives reality somewhat differently
BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR PERSONALITY Each individual is born with a distinct, genetically based set of psychological tendencies (dispositions). These tendencies are collectively called temperament Temperament affects and shapes virtually
every aspect of the persons developing personality PERSONALITY DISORDERS Group of psychiatric conditions Chronic behaviours, emotions, and thoughts are very different from a cultures expectations
Cause serious problems with relationships and work CAUSES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS The cause if PDs are unknown Genetic and environmental factors play a role
Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder SYMPTOMS Vary widely depending on the disorder Involve feelings, thoughts, and behaviours that do not adopt to wide range of settings Patterns usually begin in adolescence May lead to problems in social and work
settings Severity ranges from mild to severe SIGNS AND TESTS Diagnosed based on psychological evaluation and history and severity of symptoms TREATMENT
At first, people with these disorders do not seek treatment on their own Tend to seek help once behaviour has cause severe problems or when diagnosed with a mood or substance abuse disorder Talk therapy can help many people Medications, in some cases, can be a useful addition to therapy
PROGNOSIS The outlook varies Some go away without any treatment during middle age Some only show improvement slowly throughout life with treatment COMPLICATIONS
Problems with relationships Problems with career Other psychiatric disorders TASK Get into 8 groups. Read your info handout about your assigned disorder. Create an infographic to present to
the class. INFOGRAPHIC TIPS ( FROM EASL.LY) 1. Focused data: Use relevant data Use reputable sources Fact-check - if the data youre working with is untrustworthy, than your infographic will be too, Tiffany FarrantGonzalez
Only use data relevant to your infographics message A great infographic allows the viewer to grasp the implications of big data. via @Stevology Credit your sources. INFOGRAPHIC TIPS ( FROM EASL.LY) 2. Clear design: (Great infographics) in one word: clarity. via @AdamSinger
Limit your colour palette Use simple graphics that that tie to your data Use data visualizations that most clearly illustrates the data (only 53% of infographics use data visualizations) (x) Convey the message at a glance - take a lot of data, or a number of concepts, and boil it down to one image. via @mvolpe Establish a connection between sections (good infographics utilize the hierarchy of information) Make sure the graphics and numbers match
INFOGRAPHIC TIPS ( FROM EASL.LY) 3. Shareable story: Answer an interesting question to grab audiences - A good infographic starts with a good why question. via @ConversationAge Use rational data to elicit an emotional response (infographics attract almost 450% more actions than typical posts) (x)
Graphics should tell the story A great infographic tells a meaningful story in an instant. via @Jowyang Use as little text (as possible) in a clear font - If your infographic is supplemented with 1,000 words, youve missed the mark. via @mikemacfarlane SUMMATIVE PROJECT Complete the Persuasion Project. You have 5 class periods to work on
it. You will present on . Unit 2 Exam Review day is . Exam is .
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