Unit 11 Power Notes, Part 2

Unit 11 Power Notes, Part 2

Aerospace, Agriculture, Oil, and Computer Technology Essential Question: Analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, oil and gas, computer, and aerospace

industries The Space Race The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (Russia) and the U.S. for supremacy in spaceflight capability. In 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik,

humanitys first artificial satellite in space. In 1961, a Soviet Cosmonaut named Yuri Gagarin became the first human to enter space. Also during that year Astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to enter space. Space and Politics In 1962, President John F. Kennedy gave a memorable

speech at Rice University in Houston calling for America to sets its goal for landing on the moon in 1970. Also during that year Astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth. He later became a U.S. Senator from Ohio and a space shuttle pilot. NASA Established In 1960, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was named

Chairman of the National Aeronautics and Space Council (later renamed NASA for National Aeronautics and Space Administration). As president, LBJ continued JFKs commitment for America to land on the moon. The Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston (1961) was renamed after him the Johnson Space Center. Early Space Programs NASA began with 3 primary space programs in their quest

for the moon: the Mercury (early 1960s), the Gemini (the mid-1960s), and the Apollo (late 1960s). Astronaut Walter Cunningham, a civilian, piloted the Apollo 7 which provided the first live television transmission of onboard activities to America. America Lands on the Moon On July 20, 1969, the crew of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Mike Collins aboard Apollo 11 became the first men to

land on the moon. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon when he infamously uttered, Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed. The Space Shuttle Program In 1981, President Ronald Reagan oversaw the first space shuttle mission. 5 space shuttles were built: Atlantis,

Challenger, Columbia, Discovery, and Endeavor. 2 shuttles exploded: Challenger in 1986 during takeoffand Columbia in 2003 during reentrance. Atlantis flew the last mission in 2011. Where are they now?

Discovery Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, Chantilly, VA Atlantis Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL Endeavour California Science Center, Los Angeles, CA Enterprise (test orbiter) Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, New York City, NY Independence (replica) Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX Agriculture in the 1950s and 1960s Agricultural productivity increased because of improvements in agricultural technology and

machinery, use of better insecticides and pesticides, and expanded use of crop irrigation methods. cotton planting moving westward farmers and ranchers taking advantage of economies of scale Environment in the 1950s and 1960s Environmental problems led to Texas taking state and federal measures to clean up the air and water pollution

Steps included: 1) creating the Texas Air Control Board to monitor air pollution, 2) passed laws which no longer allowed cities to burn garbage, 3) monitored industries to reduce water pollution in/around Houston Shipping Channel and bay area. Howard Hughes, Sr. & Oil Technology In 1908, a native Houstonian named Howard Hughes Sr. revolutionized the oil industry by developing the rotary

drill bit. This bit made it possible to drill through very hard rock to reach oil deep underground. OPEC in the 1970s Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was a cartel formed to control the supply and price of oil around the world In late 1970s, OPEC cut off all U.S. oil supplies because of U.S. ties/support of Israel; this started an oil shortage

energy crisis in the U.S. The energy crisis affected many Texans: 1) gasoline prices became much higher, 2) gasoline was rationed to customers, 3) gas stations had to close on Sundays Jack Kilby & Computer Technology In 1954, Dallas company Texas Instruments was the first to make a radio with a transistor to increase flow of electricity.

In 1958, Jack Kilby (a T.I. employee) invented the integrated silicon circuit, or chip that was first used in calculators, computers, and watches. He was later honored in the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Washington, D.C. Michael Dell & Computer Technology In the 1980s, Michael Dell founded Dell Computers in

Round Rock, Texas, when he decided to sell computers first, and then build them. His company initially had over $2 billion in sales with more than 4,800 employees. His companys success led to many jobs in Williamson County which became Texass second-fastest growing county in the 1990s.

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