Types of Rocks

Types of Rocks

Earths Changing Surface Notes Rocks Cycle, Weathering, Mass Movement, Erosion, Transportation, Deposition, How Earth Works Honors Science Jodi Lock; Holicong Middle School Pearson Earth Science; 3.1, 5.1, 5.3, 6.2, p208-209 Warm-Up: Look at the objects on your table.

1. How are they similar? 2. How are they different? Types of Rocks A ROCK IS A naturally occurring, solid, mixture of one or more minerals and/or organic matter Rocks are Classified into 3 groups

based on how they are formed: Texture and composition give clues as to how rocks are formed, and are used to classify rocks 2 Types of Forces Create Rocks

Constructive Destructive Builds something up or creates something new Breaks something down or destroys something

Can something be BOTH? How? Why? The Rock Cycle The rock cycle shows that rocks are continually changing from one type to another and back again The elements that make up a rock are never created or destroyed instead, they are

constantly being recycled. Now Complete the Rock Cycle Interactive Warm-up: List as many steps of the rock cycle as you can without using

notes. What is the main idea of the rock cycle? Explain how rock is continually recycled in the rock cycle. Igneous Rock Form when magma cools and hardens. Sometimes look shiny and glasslike if lava cools quickly

Sometimes have tiny holes and spaces if gas is trapped in the rock as it cools Two examples are: Basalt and Obsidian What is the difference between magma and lava? Sedimentary Rock Formed from lithification of particles called

sediments Fairly soft and break easily Contain sand, pebbles, stones; is the only rock to contain fossils Form at or near Earths surface Most have layers or strata Sedimentary Process 1. Weathering (breaking down of rock) 2. Erosion (movement of sediments)

3. Deposition (collection of sediments) 4. Lithification (gluing together) Lithification: Compaction & Cementation Metamorphic Rock Formed under the surface of the Earth due to extreme heat and pressure Have ribbon-like layers and

may have shiny crystals formed by minerals cooling slowly over time Two examples are: Gneiss and Marble Metamorphic Rocks Think about CAKE BATTER in an oven Formed by tremendous heat & pressure, and chemical reactions

inside the crust. Formed from all three rock types. WEATHERING breaking down or decomposition of rock at or near the surface determined by rock type and climate 2 processes that work together Mechanical Chemical

Now Look at the materials on your table. Consider the terms chemical and mechanical. What do they mean? Determine how you can use those materials to demonstrate chemical weathering and mechanical weathering. Complete table 1: Mechanical & chemical weathering demos

Warm up Consider the following: How did you study for the quiz? What choice items did you complete? Was your grade what you hoped? How can you improve your efforts moving forward? Check out the Weathering website using the

information to complete organizer about mechanical and chemical weathering Weathering Module Weathering: Process Frost Wedging Thermal Expansion Unloading

Exfoliation Biological Activity Dissolution Oxidation Hydrolysis M or C Force or Action

Where or How Mechanical weathering Physical forces change the rock without changing composition Increases surface area of the rock Frost wedging/Thermal Expansion Mountain regions with repeated freeze/thaw patterns Desert/warm regions with associated heating Unloading/Exfoliation Igneous rock is exposed and outer layers expand Sections of the rock separate

Often forms domes Biological activity Plants or animals grow into cracks Rock is wedged apart (By the way) Chemical weathering Chemical forces change the rock composition Dissolution Water dissolves chemicals and carries molecules away

Often due to formation of acids with the water Oxidation Rusting or Staining due to chemical reactions Hydrolysis Water molecules break apart and join with minerals Now Design a demonstration to illustrate either Frost Wedging or Thermal Expansion. You will need to bring

materials and complete the demo filming a FlipGrid to share your work. Warm up Talk with your partner to plan your FlipGrid: Draw a diagram to illustrate one of the weathering processes. Write a script that explains

the process and film a FlipGrid to share your work. Proficient (5 points) Scientists display strong use of content in their explanations; vocabulary that is Content Knowledge used provides excellent support and

indicates topic mastery Demonstration provides an exceptional example Demonstra of this process; wellthought out and tion executed steps provide a vivid explanation Provides exceptional examples of where

Applicatio this process occurs on Earth today; n connections are strong and detailed Emerging (3 points) Scientists display a use of the content in their explanations; vocabulary is used

properly and illustrates that the content is understood Demonstration provides an example of this process; the steps executed provide an explanation for the process Provides some examples of where

this process occurs on Earth today; connections are suggested Basic (1 point) Scientists do not include all relevant content in their explanation; use of vocabulary is inaccurate and some

question remains about the content Demonstration does not clearly illustrate this process; steps performed do not clearly explain the process Provides few or no examples of where this process occurs

on Earth today; connections may be missing Flipgrid Rubric HONORS Include: 1. Which process is being shown? 2. Description of the process. 3. Where or how does this process typically occurs?

4. Provide a real-life example (it can be a picture) to support your demonstration or diagram. *Spend about a minute on each* Flipgrid Suggestions Be CREATIVE! Various types: Whiteboard stop motion Illustrations with narration Create a diagram or model with materials from the school/room

Video performance act it out Your grid code: Honors: 023b06 https://flipgrid.com/023b06

Agents of Erosion Access the Shape It Up website and take some notes about some agents of erosion. Be able to identify which force covered in the simulation is NOT an agent of erosion and WHY!!! Weathering and Erosion Five Agents of Erosion Gravity

Waves Running water Glaciers Wind Read pages 208-209 in the textbook. Define the agents of erosion above.

Warm up 1. Why do we have so many potholes here! 2. What is the main agent for erosion on Earth? 3. How does mechanical weathering impact the rate of chemical weathering? Now Look at the Rate of Chemical

Weathering lab Determine with your partner what 1 variable you will test tomorrow Complete the following: Guiding question Hypothesis Procedure Warm up What are the 5 agents of

erosion? What are some things a sandy area could experience that would change the rate of erosion? Now 1. Set up Rate of Weathering Lab 2. Taking notes on 5 agents of

erosion 3. FlipGrid upload 4. Finish any other required or unit work Warm up 1. What are some natural factors that may affect erosion? 2. What are some man-made factors that may affect erosion?

3. How does agriculture impact erosion? Deposition Material that is weathered and eroded, is eventually deposited someplace else When moving water slows, particles settle Which particles will settle first? Why????

Now 1. Work on Rate of Erosion lab Organizer box (with evidence/ justification) Questions-good answers Bullet points for the conclusion 2. FlipGrid upload 3. Finish any required or unit work

Examples of Deposition Nile River Delta Lateral moraine Cape Cod Mass Movements Transfer of rock and soil down slope due to gravity

Several causes Water Over-steepened sloped Removal of vegetation Classified by Kind How it moves Speed of movement Types of Mass Movements Predict the action/force, then use your text to complete the rest.

Name Rockfall Slide Slump Flow Creep Predicted action and Force

Description Relativ e Speed Real Example Hmm Watch the 2 short video clips In your notes, make a chart for the videos that

lists the structure the force behind the formation the process that is occurring Find a 3rd example for one of the processes we have covered List it in your notes chart Include a picture or video to illustrate your example

Warm up TURN in LAB WORK? Describe the Rock Cycle! What do

you need us to review again? INSERT GRAND CANYON VIDEO HERE Warm-up: Inorganic MINERALS

Solid Natural Chemical Compositio n Silicates NonSilicates Crystal

Shape Warm-up: ROCKS Metamorp hic Foliated (layers) Nonfoliated

(no layers) Sedimentar y Chemica l Igneous Organic (living stuff)

(evaporation) Intrusive Clastic (inside) (other rock pieces) Extrusiv

e (outside)

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