TYPES OF POETRY By Mrs. Lisa Orf Middle School English Teacher St. Joseph Catholic School, Westphalia MO Poetic Techniques Alliteration: A poem is using alliteration when several words that start with the same consonant are placed close together. For example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." Onomatopoeia: A word that sounds like what it represents. Words for animal sounds, such as meow" and oink," are onomatopoeias, as are words like pop" and click" that sound like the noise they are naming. Consonance: Consonance is similar to alliteration, because it involves the same consonant being repeated several times close together. However, this time the consonant doesnt have to always be at the beginning of the word. For example: She sells seashells by the seashore." Imagery: Descriptive language that creates pictures in the readers mind is known as imagery. Certain words and comparisons are used to help the reader see whats going on and evoke a certain mood or emotion. Personification: This is when an object or animal is given human qualities. The poem may describe an object as though it can think and feel, or describe an animal that can talk or think logically. In William Blakes poem Two Sunflowers," he personifies the flowers when he writes: Ah, William, we're weary of weather, said the sunflowers, shining with dew." Free verse: This type of poetry is free-form, and doesnt stick to a particular structure or rhythm. It does not have regular rhymes, and the lines may be of different lengths and have different patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. The Red Wheelbarrow William Carlos Williams, 1883 - 1963 so much depends upon a red wheel barrow glazed with rain water beside the white chickens. William Carlos Williams reads The Red Wheelbarrow: https://youtu.be/NqIl3oX_44s Birches Blank verse: Blank verse is a form of poetry that does not rhyme, but has a
regular meter. Each line has the same (or close to the same) rhythm of stressed and unstressed syllables and words. A popular meter used in blank verse is iambic pentameter. By Robert Frost When I see birches bend to leftand right Across the lines of straighter darker trees, I like to think some boy's been swinging them. But swinging doesn't bend them down to stay As ice-storms do. Often you must have seen them Loaded with ice a sunny winter morning After a rain. They click upon themselves As the breeze rises, and turn many-colored As the stir cracks and crazes their enamel. Soon the sun's warmth makes them shed crystal shells Shattering and avalanching on the snow -crust Such heaps of broken glass to sweep away You'd think the inner dome of heaven had fallen. They are dragged to the withered bracken by the load, And they seem not to break; though once they are bowed So low for long, they never right themselves: You may see their trunks arching in the woods Years afterwards, trailing their leaves on the ground Like girls on hands and knees that throw their hair Before them over their heads to dry in the sun. But I was going to say when Truth broke in With all her matter -of-fact about the ice-storm I should prefer to have some boy bend them As he went out and in to fetch the cows Some boy too far from town to learn baseball, Whose only play was what he found himself, Summer or winter, and could play alone. One by one he subdued his father's trees By riding them down over and over again Until he took the stiffness out of them, And not one but hung limp, not one was left For him to conquer. He learned all there was To learn about not launching out too soon And so not carrying the tree away
Clear to the ground. He always kept his poise To the top branches, climbing carefully With the same pains you use to fill a cup Up to the brim, and even above the brim. Then he flung outward, feet first, with a swish, Kicking his way down through the air to the ground. So was I once myself a swinger of birches. And so I dream of going back to be. It's when I'm weary of considerations, And life is too much like a pathless wood Where your face burns and tickles with the cobwebs Broken across it, and one eye is weeping From a twig's having lashed across it open. I'd like to get away from earth awhile And then come back to it and begin over. May no fate willfully misunderstand me And half grant what I wish and snatch me away Not to return. Earth's the right place for love: I don't know where it's likely to go better. I'd like to go by climbing a birch tree, And climb black branches up a snow-white trunk Toward heaven, till the tree could bear no more, But dipped its top and set me down again. That would be good both going and coming back. One could do worse than be a swinger of birches. Robert Frost "Birches": https://youtu.be/hSMW -TGVe40 Narrative poem: This kind of poem tells a story, much like a novel does. Their structures vary greatly, but every narrative poem has to have some form of plot and characters. Often these poems are long, and the many possible varieties include epics and ballads. The Naming of Cats By T. S. Eliot The Naming of Cats is a difficult matter, It isn't just one of your holiday games; You may think at first I'm as mad as a hatter When I tell you, a cat must have THREE DIFFERENT NAMES.
First of all, there's the name that the family use daily, Such as Peter, Augustus, Alonzo or James, Such as Victor or Jonathan, George or Bill Bailey-All of them sensible everyday names. There are fancier names if you think they sound sweeter, Some for the gentlemen, some for the dames: Such as Plato, Admetus, Electra, Demeter-But all of them sensible everyday names. But I tell you, a cat needs a name that's particular, A name that's peculiar, and more dignified, Else how can he keep up his tail perpendicular, Or spread out his whiskers, or cherish his pride? Of names of this kind, I can give you a quorum, Such as Munkustrap, Quaxo, or Coricopat, Such as Bombalurina, or else JellylorumNames that never belong to more than one cat. But above and beyond there's still one name left over, And that is the name that you never will guess; The name that no human research can discover-But THE CAT HIMSELF KNOWS, and will never confess. When you notice a cat in profound meditation, The reason, I tell you, is always the same: His mind is engaged in a rapt contemplation Of the thought, of the thought, of the thought of his name: His ineffable effable Effanineffable Deep and inscrutable singular Name. The Naming of the Cats performed by the Cats ensemble: https://youtu.be/j7uTcYvoEbU Sonnet: A type of poem commonly written by Shakespeare and other English writers in the sixteenth century. It has a very strict 14-line structure. Each line must contain exactly ten syllables and be written in iambic pentameter. In a typical Shakespearian sonnet, the last couplet (two lines) of the poem rhymes. SONNET 18 By William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st; So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Shakespeares Sonnet 18 performed by 8 year old child actress Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night By Dylan Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. And you, my father, there on the sad height, Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Sir Anthony Hopkins Reads Dylan Thomas: https://youtu.be/jIfK809B0Qs Elegy: A poem with a very sad, melancholy mood. Often an elegy is written for someone who has recently died. Repetition: Often in poetry a word or phrase is repeated in order to emphasize a certain idea or image. Repetition may also
help give structure to the poem, the same way the repeated chorus in a song gives it a predictable structure. To be or not to be" repeats the phrase to be" twice, giving it greater emphasis. Hamlet, Act III, Scene I [To be, or not to be] William Shakespeare, 1564 - 1616 To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, tis a consummation Devoutly to be wishd. To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, theres the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: theres the respect That makes calamity of so long life; For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressors wrong, the proud mans contumely, The pangs of despised love, the laws delay, The insolence of office and the spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, . . . Hamlet - Act III, Scene 1 "To be or not to be... https:// youtu.be/YZBSU5-Thuc So God Made a "Farmer by Paul Harvey https:// youtu.be/7UBj4Rbq3ZI The Raven Internal rhyme: When two or more words in the same line of a poem rhyme, that line is said to have internal rhyme. For example, the first line of The Raven" by Edgar Allen Poe reads, Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary." Dreary and weary rhyme, meaning this line of poetry has internal rhyme. By Edgar Allen Poe This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing The Raven read by James Earl Jones w/ Moonlight Sonata: https://youtu.be/NykmXl24qcc Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter, Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosoms core;
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly days of yore; This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he; On the cushions velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated oer, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door But whose velvet-violet lining with the lamp-light gloating oer, Tis some visitor, I muttered, tapping at my chamber door Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door She shall press, ah, nevermore! Only this and nothing more. Perched, and sat, and nothing more. Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December; Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling, Swung by Seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor. And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore, Wretch, I cried, thy God hath lent theeby these angels he hath sent thee Eagerly I wished the morrow;vainly I had sought to borrow Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou, I said, art sure no craven, Respiterespite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore; From my books surcease of sorrowsorrow for the lost Lenore Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore! For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Nights Plutonian shore! Quoth the Raven Nevermore. Nameless here for evermore. Quoth the Raven Nevermore. Prophet! said I, thing of evil!prophet still, if bird or devil! And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly, Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore, Thrilled mefilled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; Though its answer little meaninglittle relevancy bore; Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being On this home by Horror hauntedtell me truly, I implore Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door Is thereis there balm in Gilead?tell metell me, I implore! Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door; Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door, Quoth the Raven Nevermore. This it is and nothing more. With such name as Nevermore. Prophet! said I, thing of evil!prophet still, if bird or devil! Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer, But the Raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only By that Heaven that bends above usby that God we both adore Sir, said I, or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore; That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour. Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn, But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping, Nothing farther then he utterednot a feather then he fluttered It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door, Till I scarcely more than muttered Other friends have flown before Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore. That I scarce was sure I heard youhere I opened wide the door; On the morrow he will leave me, as my Hopes have flown before. Quoth the Raven Nevermore. Darkness there and nothing more. Then the bird said Nevermore. Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend! I shrieked, upstarting Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken, Get thee back into the tempest and the Nights Plutonian shore! Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before; Doubtless, said I, what it utters is its only stock and store Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken! But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token, Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster Leave my loneliness unbroken!quit the bust above my door! And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, Lenore? Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door! This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, Lenore!
Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore Quoth the Raven Nevermore. Merely this and nothing more. Of Nevernevermore. And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, But the Raven still beguiling all my fancy into smiling, On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door; Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before. Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door; And his eyes have all the seeming of a demons that is dreaming, Surely, said I, surely that is something at my window lattice; Then, upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking And the lamp-light oer him streaming throws his shadow on the floor; Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore; What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore Shall be liftednevermore! Tis the wind and nothing more! Meant in croaking Nevermore. End rhyme: This term can refer to two things: rhyming lines of poetry and rhyming words. When two or more lines of poetry end with a rhyming word, that is considered an end rhyme. Also, two words that rhyme on their last syllable, such as showers" and flowers," are said to have end rhyme. What happens to a dream deferred? By Langston Hughes Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? "Dream Deferred (Harlem)" Langston Hughes poem EXAMPLE
of Harlem Renaissance literature: https://youtu.be/79YjXKYeWCk Catholic Poetry: Catholic poetry follows the same styles as secular poetry only uses themes relating to the Catholic faith. These poems are written to honor God, call attention to Saints, and to celebrate creation, goodness, mercy, and life (just to name a few). A lot of Catholic poetry becomes prayers or songs or both not because theyre required to, but because the reading of a Catholic poem is lyrical and metered in a way that naturally flows toward our faith, which rises anew with each recitation. Your assignment is to write a Catholic poem about Lent and/or Easter. A Child My Choice The Peace Prayer of Saint Francis By St. Robert Southwell Lord, make me an instrument of your peace. Where there is hatred, let me sow love; Where there is error, truth; Where there is injury, pardon; Where there is doubt, faith; Where there is despair, hope; Where there is darkness, light; And where there is sadness, joy. Let folly praise what fancy loves, I praise and loves that Child Whose heart no thought, whose tongue no word, whose hand no deed defiled. I praise him most, I love him best, all praise and love is his, While him I love, in him I live, and cannot live amiss. Loves sweetest mark, lauds highest theme, mans most desired light, To love him life, to leave him death, to live in him delight. He mine by gift, I his by debt, thus each to other due, First friend he was, best friend he is, all times will try him true. Though young, yet wise; though small, yet strong; though man, yet God he is: As wise he knows; as strong he can; as God he loves to bliss. His knowledge rules; his strength defends; his love doth cherish all; His birth our Joy; his life out light; his death our end of thrall. Alas, he weeps, he sighs, he pants, yet do his Angels sing; Out of his tears, his sighs and throbs, doth bud a joyful spring. Almighty babe, whose tender arms can force all foes to fly,
Correct my faults, protect my life, direct me when I die. "A Child My Choice" Sung by the Apex High Advanced Mixed Chorus: https://youtu.be/uka18-s044E O Divine Master, grant that I may not so much seek To be consoled as to console; To be understood as to understand; To be loved as to love. For it is in giving that we receive; It is in pardoning that we are pardoned; It is in self-forgetting that we find; And it is in dying to ourselves that we are born to eternal life. Amen. Prayer of St. Francis, (Make Me A Channel of Your Peace) sung by Angelina, EWTN: https://youtu.be/ZI1Gst7pEqc Assignment: Write a poem using the theme of Lent, Easter, or Lent and Easter for a contest sponsored by The America Library of Poetry. Due Date: Wednesday, April 5th. Theme: Lent and/or Easter (not secular, not about the Easter Bunny). Style: You may chose any poetry style discussed in this PowerPoint. Length: Negotiable Special Note: The work you turn in must be your own creative writing product. Eighth-grade Seventh-grade Read Chapters 26 and 33 thoroughly. Read Chapters 22 and 33 thoroughly. Well go over Chapter 26: Poem on pages 479-482, 484-485 in class. Weve already been over Chapter 22: Poem on pages 430-437, but we will review it again in class to refresh. Well also be going over Chapter 33: Developing Your Vocabulary on pages 585-597 in class.
Well also be going over Chapter 33: Developing Your Vocabulary on pages 567-579 in class. Use the information in these chapters and the following references that can be found in your English textbook in in completing your poem assignment: Use the information in these chapters and the following references that can be found in your English textbook in in completing your poem assignment: Capitalization of first words on pages 233 and 246. Capitalization of first words on pages 233 and 246-247. Capitalization of titles on page 234. Capitalization of titles on page 234. Imagery on pages 481-482. Italics for titles of epics on page 268. Italics for titles on page 268. Punctuation on page 470. Punctuation on page 482. Quotation marks for titles on page 268. Quotation marks for titles on page 268.
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Process by which characters pass from one generation to the next is called. Inheritance. Transmission of characters. from one generation to the next is. Heredity. Though each generation receives characters from the previous generation, yet they are different.
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Changing behaviour . Sporting performances depend on how we behave within a competitive situation- our approach. Performers attitude to an opponent, event, object or training will have an effect on the outcome. Attitudes: a complex mix of feelings, beliefs and...