Towards an Electronic Kilogram Physics 250 Victor Acosta NOTE: Almost everything in this report was taken from NIST websites. The Old Standard: "Le Gran K" Held In Sevres, France Only 1/7 SI units using physical artifact m/m = 30 ppb Ideas for New Standard X-Rays in Si
Avogadros #, NA 340 ppb (2003) Watt-balance: EM vs. G Planck Constant, h 52 ppb (2005) Link to "invariant" quantum phenomena ? The Watt Balance Balance Gravity Force with EMF Find value for h,
Plancks Constant 2R h me c 2 Physics Faraday's Law
1 c E l B a v z z F I
z Animation (if it works) Measurements: Voltage Hg Battery Stabilized I-Source Zener Diode Iind.
RDVM Josephson Array Voltage nfh 2e Determine f with GPS Atomic clock Measurements: Velocity 3 HeNe Laser systems give v and z Easily referenced to Meter standard: HeNe = 632.99139822 nm
Measurement: Current Iind. Use DVM (Josephson ref.) to measure V across R Get R via Quantum Hall Effect RH h j e2
DVM Measurement: Gravity When scale is balanced F I v m 1
J VJ g vHeNe RH Easy to reference gravity! Use nearby gravimeter < 10 meters away Reference with HeNe, GPS Watt-Balance UC
Basic references (error mode) Mass (force) Voltage, square error (current, voltage) nW/W 15 2 Resistance (current) 10 Time, linear error (voltage, current, velocity) 0.5
Length (velocity) 3 Local gravity acceleration (force) 30 TOTAL RMS 52
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