Tour of Cell Organelles

Tour of Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 Cell Theory Cells first described by Hooke 1665 First LIVING cells described by Leeuwenhoek Schleiden all plants made of cells

Schwann all animals made of cells Virchow all cells come from pre-existing cells Principles of Cell Theory cells are the basic units of life all living things are composed of cells cells come only from other cells Regents Biology Types of cells bacteria

cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells Regents Biology plant cells Cell size comparison most bacteria Animal cell Bacterial cell 1-10 microns eukaryotic cells

10-100 microns Animation Regents Biology micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns Prokaryote/Eukaryote DNA comparison Prokaryotes lack internal organization NO organelles Prokaryote DNA shaped as a closed ring floating in cytoplasm Nucleoid region Eukaryote DNA in linear

chromosomes enclosed in a nucleus Regents Biology Prokaryote/Eukaryote Cell Wall Comparison Prokaryotes all have cell walls Unique composition peptidoglycan Eukaryotes may or may not have cell walls Animal cells none Plant cells cell walls

made of cellulose Fungal cells cell walls made of chitin Regents Biology Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Cell Wall of May or may not have peptidoglycan No membrane bound organelles cell walls Membrane bound organelles

DNA enclosed in a nucleus and arranged in linear chromosomes Ribosomes are present DNA in a ring, floating in the cytoplasm Regents Biology Plant Cell Cell Wall of cellulose Large Central Vacuole

Chloroplasts Regents Biology vs. Animal Cell No cell wall Vacuoles are small and transient No chloroplasts Observing Cells How We Know What We Know Light Microscopes Remember Hooke and Van Leeuwenhoek

Magnification Size of image Resolving power Clarity of image Observing Organelles Too small for light microscope Electron Microscope Scanning EM External views

Transmission EM Thin sections of specimen internal views Regents Biology TEM vs SEM both are images of cells from a rabbit trachea (windpipe). Cilia are visible. Regents Biology Why are cells small? With size increase, volume grows more than surface area. Small objects have larger surface area:volume ratio

Cell/Plasma membrane functions as selective barrier Enough oxygen, nutrients, wastes must pass in to service entire volume of the cell Only so much stuff can pass through at a time. Need a surface large enough to accommodate volume, thus cells have to be small. Regents Biology Eukaryotic Cells and Complex Internal Membranes Membranes create ORGANELLES Partition cells into compartments Provide separate little rooms so that incompatible processes can go on at the

same time in the cell Internal membranes of cells participate directly in metabolism Enzymes are often built directly into membranes Chemical reactions occur at such sites All membranes are similar, but different All made of phospholipid bilayer But suited to specific functions due to embedded enzymes, etc. Regents Biology

Why study cells? Cells Tissues Organs Bodies bodies are made up of cells cells do all the work of life! Regents Biology The Work of Life What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live breathe gas exchange: CO2 vs. O2 eat take in & digest food

make energy ATP ATP build molecules proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids remove wastes control internal conditions respond to external environment build more cells

growth, repair, reproduction & development Regents Biology Stay Tuned for an in depth Tour of the Eukaryotic Cell! AP Biology 2008-2009

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