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Plant Diver sity Six Kingdoms of Life (Rev iew) All life can be traced from a common ancestor (a bacterium) that lived ~3.8 billion years ago. Six Kingdoms of Life

(Rev iew) 2 kingdoms for bacteria; prokaryotic (n o nucleus). Archaebacteria (archae = ancient) In the domain Archaea. Cell wall not peptidoglycan. Live in extreme environments similar to early earth: hot spring s, salty seas; oxygen i s poisonous. DNA more like eukaryotes.

Ancestor of eukaryotes? Eubacteria (eu = true) In the domain Bacteria. Cell wall of peptidoglycan. Live all around us: on the floor, Six Kingdoms of Life (Rev iew) Domain Eukarya: Cells with a nucleus; 4 kingdoms distinguished by cellulari ty, nutrition, cell walls.

Protists are either autotrophs (the algae) or he terotrophs (like amoebas & paramecia). Only s eaweeds are multicellular. Fungi are heterotrophic decomp multicellular. CW osers; most are of chitin. Animals are multicellular hs; most digest

specialll. Plants are multicellular phs (photosynose. heterotrop their food within ized cavities. No cell wa autotro Theory of endosymbiosis thetic); CW of cellul Plant cell structure

(Revie w) Differences between plant and animal cells? Unlike animal cells, plant cells have . . . chloroplasts. a central vacuole. a cell wall of cellulose (angular cells n ot rounded). Plant ancestors Charophycean algae are the ancestors of

land plants. The y inhabit shallow fresh waters. Plants originated in water. The first land plants appeared in the Ordovician period, around 450 mya. Chara Chara vulgaris vulgaris (aquatic) (aquatic)

Plant phyla Of ~19 plant phyla, only four are of widespread importance. Know them! Ancestral protist *Pteridophytes are the ferns Plant phyla Bryophytes: mosses, liverworts and ho

rnworts They have no vascular tissue to carry wa ter, and no true roots nor leaves and st ems. Absorption of water takes place over e ntire surface Small simple plants, generally less tha n 1 tall. Moss Liverworts Hornworts

Plant phyla Bryophytes: mosses, 2n hornworts liverworts, They live in damp areas an d still require water for reproduction. In sexual reproduction, the male gamete must 1n swim to female gamete. A haploid (1n ) 1n

phase domi nates and produces the g ametes. 2n = stalk & capsule only. Plant phyla Alternation of generations A unique characteristic of plants: all plan ts alternate between diploid (2n) and ha ploid (1n) forms. Gametophyte: the haploid plant that p roduces the sperm or egg the gamet es. phyte = plant in Greek Click for moss video

Sporophyte: the diploid plant that pro duces the spore (in bryophytes & ferns) or the seed (in gymnosperms & angiospe rms). Plant phyla Ferns They are vascular plants. This means that they have a specialized transport system of vascular tissue: tub e-like cells carry water. They have true roots, leaves and stems.

Plant phyla Ferns May live in dry areas but need water for reproduction. In sexual reproduction, the male game te must swim to the female gamete. The diploid (2n ) phase dominates; but t he gametophyte develops from a ha Sporophyte develops ploid (1n) spore. after fertilization from the archegonium.

Plant phyla Ferns reproduce with spores (not seed s) found in sporangia on the backside of leaves. Spores are dispersed by wind. Spores Spores released released from from sporangium sporangium Plant phyla

Seed plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Seeds enable plants to survi ve harsh conditions. They store nutrients for a headstart in life. They aid dispersal of spe cies. Plant phyla Gymnosperms: cone bearing plants such as pine, spruce, juniper, and redwood trees.

Vascular plants with true roots, leaves a nd stems. Xylem carries water; phloem carries p hotosynthate 1 1 Phloem Phloem 2 2 Xylem Xylem Vessels in trunk carry water Plant phyla

Gymnosperms: cone bearing plants such as pine, s pruce, juniper, and redwood trees. Gametes immotile. The male pollen grains fly in the wind indiscriminately. Female gametophyte is inside the cone. Seeds are not enclosed in an ovary (no fruit). Plant phyla Gymnosperms: cone bearing plants

Conifers have male ale cones. & fem Male gametophyte grows to female Each Each scale scale of of a a female female cone cone

encloses encloses seeds. seeds. Plant phyla Gymnosperms: cone bearing plants Cycads The The cardboard cardboard palm, palm, a a common common cycad

cycad here. here. The The coontie: coontie: our our native native cycad cycad Plant phyla Angiosperms: flowering plants form fru its after fertilization, such as apple, r ose, grasses, palms Vascular plants with true roots, leaves a nd stems.

Xylem carries water; phloem carries p hotosynthate Plant phyla Angiosperms: flowering plants form fru its after fertilization, such as apple, r ose, grasses, palms Gametes are produced within flowers. The male pollen grains fly in the wind or are carried by insec ts to female flowers. The female gametophyte develops into the ovary. Seeds are enclosed in the

ovar y, which develops into the frui t. Plant phyla Angiosperms: flowering plants form fru its Flowers attract pollinators: a symbiotic r elationship. Plant phyla Angiosperms: flowering plants form fru its Fruits attract animals that disperse the s

eeds. Plant phyla Angiosperms: Fruits proward for ing vide a redispers seeds. Plant taxonomy Angiosperms Flowering plants 1. non-swimming sperm 2. vascular tissues

3. seeds covered by fruit 4. flowers Monocots - germinate with 1 leaf * ex: g rains, palms Dicots - germinate with 2 leaves ex: beans, peanuts * Cotyledon = the leaf within the Grass Bean monocotyledon seed dicotyledon

Monocots vs. Dicots Note three differences. Monocots vs. Dicots Compare flowers. icot? Which is a monocot; which is a d Monocots vs. Dicots Compare leaves. Which is a monocot; which is a dic ot?

Note the 5 sepals Monocots vs. Dicots Compare. Which are these? Ferns have spores, not seeds: None of the above Conifers have seeds but no flowers:

Gymnosperm Cycads have seeds but no flowers: Gymnosperm Plant life spans (Applies to all phyla): Annuals: complete their life cycle in one growin g season marigolds, tomatoes, corn. Biennials: need two seasons to grow and repro duce celery.

Perennials: live and reproduce over many year s; most have woody stems asparagus, many grasses, palms, oak trees. Review plant evolution Know what happened at each branch point. Know Know these these four four major major plant

plant phyla. phyla. Development of flowers Development of seeds Development of vascular tissue Development of cuticle: first land plants

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