The Six Kingdoms An Overview Before the six kingdoms, there were After Linnaeus created his two-word naming system, scientists only recognized 2 kingdoms Plantae (plants) & Animalia (animals) Because of the increase in knowledge of living organisms and the invention of the microscope, biologists have added complexity and detail to the classification system Before the six kingdoms, there were In the 1800s, scientists noticed differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, so they
added a kingdom for the prokaryotes Then, there were 5 kingdoms Monera (prokaryotes), Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia In the 1900s, scientists noticed two major groups of prokaryotes in the Kingdom Monera The Six Kingdoms Today: Eubacteria DOMAIN BACTERIA Archaebacteria DOMAIN ARCHAEA Protista Fungi DOMAIN EUKARYA
Plantae The 6 Kingdoms are sorted into 3 Animalia domains because scientists see major differences among them What about Viruses? Viruses dont have a place in the Linnaean classification system because they are not considered living they are missing key characteristics of living organisms For example, viruses do have genetic material, but they cannot reproduce on their own. Viruses reproduce by infecting cells. Major Characteristics that define
Kingdoms and Domains Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) Cell Structure (cell walls or no cell walls) Number of Cells (unicellular or multicellular) Nutrition (autotroph or heterotroph) Reproduction (asexual or sexual) Domain: Bacteria Kingdom: Eubacteria
Common name is bacteria Cell type: prokaryotic Cell structure: cell wall with peptidoglycan Number of cells: unicellular Nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic Mode of reproduction: asexual - binary fission Other information: Most are beneficial Examples: E. coli & Streptococcus pneumoniae
Domain: Archaea Kingdom: Archaebacteria Common name is archaea Cell type: prokaryotic Cell structure: cell wall with unique lipids Number of cells: unicellular Nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic
Mode of reproduction: asexual - binary fission Other information: live in extreme environments Examples: Staphylothermus marinus Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Protista Common name is protists
Cell type: eukaryotic Cell structure: some species have cell wall Number of cells: unicellular or multicellular Nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic Mode of reproduction: sexual & asexual Other information: not a natural group but a left-over taxon. Most are marine. Examples: paramecium Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Fungi
Common name is Fungi Cell type: eukaryotic Cell structure: cell walls with chitin Number of cells: mostly multicellular Nutrition: heterotrophic by absorption Mode of reproduction: sexual Other information: Some fungi taste great and others can kill you Examples: mushrooms, mold & mildew Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Plantae
Common name is Plants Cell type: eukaryotic Cell structure: cell walls with cellulose Number of cells: multicellular Nutrition: autotrophic Mode of reproduction: sexual & asexual Other information: range from tiny mosses to giant trees Examples: flowering plants
Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Common name is Animals Cell type: eukaryotic Cell structure: no cell walls Number of cells: multicellular Nutrition: heterotrophic by ingestion
Mode of reproduction: sexual Other information: found in every type of environment (air, water, land) Examples: bottle-nose dolphin, monarch butterfly
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