The Roman World Takes Shape - Moore Public Schools
THE ROMAN WORLD TAKES SHAPE Chapter 5 Section 1 ROMANS SETTLE ITALY Italy much easier to unify than Greece The city on seven hills (Rome) Legend has it: Twin brothersRomulus and Remusfounded the city of Rome Etruscans lived North of Rome
ROME ESTABLISHES A REPUBLIC Senators: Patricians; served for life and
made laws for Rome Consuls: Patricians; elected by Senate to supervise the running of Rome Dictators: Patricians; elected by Senate on occasions of war Tribunes: Plebeians; elected by Plebeians to guard the interest of Plebeians Citizen-soldiers: Citizens; served in the Roman army CHARACTERIZING ROMAN SOCIETY Family
was basic unitmale head of household; ideal woman was loving, dignified, and strong Women played a larger role in society than did Greek women CHARACTERIZING ROMAN SOCIETY CONT Both boys/girls from upper/lower class learned to read/write
Rhetoric was important for boys who wanted to pursue political careers Romans were polytheistic- many gods were adopted from Greece Zeus (Most powerful); Jupiter; Juno
ROMAN REPUBLIC GROWS Roman political/social systems evolved at home- armies expanded this power across Italy Used basic military unit- legion Volunteer basis and provided your own weapon
Eventually was paid- most income came from spoils of war Roman commanders mixed rewards with harsh punishment ROMAN REPUBLIC GROWS CONT Generally treated conquered lands with justice Had
to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army In return Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local governments To a privileged few, Rome gave full citizenship/ others partial citizenship Most conquered lands stayed loyal to Rome FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE Chapter 5 Section 2
ROME GROWS THROUGH CONQUEST Rome began to expand westward conflict between Rome and Carthage became inevitable Between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C. three wars were fought against Carthage (Punic Wars) 1st
Punic War: Rome defeated Carthage and won islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia 2nd Punic War: Hannibal led his army from the North on a surprise attackwon battle after battle in Italy until Romans attacked Carthage Failed to take Rome 3rd Punic War: Rome completely destroyed Carthage- survivors were killed or sold into slavery Romans poured salt on the earth
so nothing would grow CONTINUED INVASIONS While fighting Carthaginians, Romans conquered east as well Launched a series of wars against Hellenistic rulers Slowly Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor surrendered and became part of Rome
A new wealthy class emerged Wealthy owned latifundia Put small farmers out of business Led to jobless/poor rioting ATTEMPTS AT REFORM
Among first reformers were Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Tiberius wanted to give land to poor farmers Gaius wanted wider reforms, use of public lands to feed the poor The brothers and thousands of followers were killed THE ROMAN REPUBLIC DECLINES
Debate over who should hold power- the senate or popular political leaders Led to slave uprisings at home Old legions of citizen-soldiers became professional armies who were loyal to their commanders JULIUS CAESAR Caesar and Pompey dominated politics Caesar
set out with private army to conquer new lands (Gaul) Fearful of Caesars power- Pompey convinced Senate to disband Caesars army Caesar secretly marched into Rome and crushed Pompey and his followers Then continued on his quest of conquering more land Upon his return to Rome, he forced the Senate to make him dictator JULIUS CAESAR CONT
Pushed through many reforms Program of public works Reorganized government and gave more citizenship Introduced a new calendar (became our calendar today) Enemies were fearful of his power so they stabbed him to death
His death plunged Rome into new civil wars Mark Antony and Octavian joined forces to find Caesars murders Led to a dispute between the two Octavian defeated Anthony and his ally Queen Cleopatra of Egypt
Octavian changed his name to Augustus- Exalted One Avoided calling himself king- but did name a successor as a king would do Began the Age of the Roman Empire ROMAN EMPIRE
Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government Left senate in place and created an efficient civil service High level jobs open to men of talent, not based on class Allowed self-government to outlying cities and providences Also made economic reforms: Ordered
a census to make taxes more fair Set up postal service Issued new coins to make trade easier AUGUSTUS SUCCESSORS Not all were competent and strong Caligula appointed his horse as a consul Nero persecuted Christians and was blamed for setting a great fire that burned much of
Rome 96-180 a series of good emperors Hadrian codified Roman law and had a large wall built for protection Marcus Aurelius read philosophy while leading wars PAX ROMANA BRINGS PROSPERITY
Augustus to Aurelius is known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity from Euphrates River in east to Britain in west (size of continental US)
Legions maintained and protected roads and trade routes Trade expanded greatly During this time prosperity hid underlying social and economic problems RISE OF CHRISTIANITY Ch. 5 Sec. 4 DIVISIONS IN JUDEA
Romans conquered Judea by 63 B.C. Romans excused Jews from worshiping Roman gods because they were monotheistic Among Jews themselves, religious ferment created divisions Jewish conservatives rejected Hellenistic influences and called for strict obedience to Jewish law and
traditions RISE OF CHRISTIANITY As turmoil engulfed Jews, Christianity began to rise among followers of a Jew named Jesus Most of what we know about Jesus comes from the Gospels (First 4 books of New Testament of Christian bible) JESUS TEACHES NEW
BELIEFS Jesus teachings were firmly rooted in Jewish tradition Preached obedience in the laws of Moses but also preached new beliefs His mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to all who believed in him JESUS PERSECUTION
Some Jews welcomed Jesus, others saw him as a troublemaker Roman authorities saw him as a threat Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples and arrested, tried, and condemned to death After death on the cross
Gospels report he ascended into heaven MESSAGE OF CHRISTIANITY SPREADS Disciples continued to spread Jesus message Followers became known as Christians
Peter spread Christianity to Rome itself Paul played most influential role in spreading Christianity Paul traveled around Mediterranean and set up churches Also wrote letters to Christians to help spread CHRISTIANS ARE OPPRESSED
Romans no longer tolerated Christians Christians met in secret to avoid persecution/ rumors spread they were engaged in evil practices Peter and Paul were martyred during reign of Nero Christianity continued to spread despite the attacks- even brought more converts
DIFFERENCES ARISE WITHIN THE CHURCH Rivalry within church officials caused divisions between east and west Led to heresies: beliefs said to contrary to official Church teachings THE LONG DECLINE Ch. 5 Sec. 5
Roman empire faced threats from inside and outside the empire Economic problems Foreign invasion Decline in traditional values Undermined security
stability and PROBLEMS IN THE EMPIRE Death of Marcus Aurelius- Rome spiraled into political and economic decline Disruptive political pattern emerged Constant
overturning of the throne 26 emperors resigned in 50 years High taxes to support army placed heavy burdens on small business and small farmers Farmland lost its productivity Farmers became slaves even though they were free EMPEROR DIOCLETIAN
SHARES POWER Diocletian set out to restore order Divided the empire in half to make it easier to rule He kept control of wealthy east Gave co-emperor Maximian the West Fixes prices to slow inflation: the rapid
rise of prices Sons had to follow their fathers Farmers were forced to stay on the land Was to ensure steady production CONSTANTINE MAKES FURTHER REFORMS 312 General Constantine
gained the throne Continued Diocletians reforms and made more: Granted toleration to Christians Established a new capital at Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople Eastern empire became New Rome and was center of power
IMPROVEMENTS PROVE TEMPORARY Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine had mixed results Revived the economy Held empire together Failed to stop long-term decline Internal problems and attacks
from the outside bring down the empire ROME IS SACKED Gradually Germanic groups occupied more and more of Western Rome Worst 434 Hun leader Attila started a savage campaign of conquest
Sent was yet to come more Germanic people fleeing 476 Germanic leader Odoacer ousted emperor of Rome Historians referred to that as the fall of Rome
PROBLEMS THAT CAUSED ROME TO FALL 1. Military invasions- partly because legion lacked discipline and training; hired mercenaries: foreign soldiers serving for pay 2. Political Turmoil- government
became too oppressive and lost support of the people; constant civil wars for power; dividing 3. Economic Weakness- heavier taxes to support bureaucracy and vast military; reliance on slave labor minimized exploring new technology; high death rate with war not enough people to meet production demands
4. Social Decay- some Romans pointed to lack of patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty on which Rome was built DID ROME FALL?
An emperor still ruled eastern Roman empire for another 1,000 years under Byzantine empire fall of Rome is shorthand for a long, slow change from one way of life to another People of Italy continued to live much the way they did before 476, just under new rulers Many still spoke Latin and obeyed Roman
laws Slowly German culture replaced Roman, cities crumbled and roads THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Chapter 9 Sections 1 CONSTANTINE CREATES A NEW ROME
Ruled Eastern Side after split of Rome Rebuilt Roman city of Byzantium- renamed it Constantinople Became the new capital of his Empire
In time- Eastern Rome became Byzantine Empire CONSTANTINOPLE GROWS Located on shores of the Bosporus Strait- Links Mediterranean and Black Seas Guarded on three sides by water Built a system of land/sea walls for better defense
Busy marketplace EX: Silk from China, Wheat from Egypt, Gems from India, Spices from SW Asia, Furs from Vikings Blended Greek, Roman, and Christian influences with other traditions of the Mediterranean world JUSTINIAN
Byzantine Empire reached peak under Justinian Wanted to revive Rome by gaining back original lands Unsuccessful Rebuilt the capital Rebuilt
Hagia Sophia church Justinian Code: Body of Civil Law Impacted as far as Western Europe Hagia Sophia JUSTINIAN CONT
Rules with Absolute Power Ruled as an Autocrat Also held power over the church (Christs Co-ruler) Economic and Military Strength Remained a money economy when
others could not One of the strongest military forces in the world Possessed Greek Fire JUSTINIAN CHRISTIANITY
Practiced differently in Byzantine empire than in Europe- caused increasing tensions Europe had Priests/ Byzantine emperor was over church and appointed patriarchs During Middle Ages, multiple controversies led to Great Schism Byzantine Christianity became Eastern or
Greek Orthodox Church West became Roman Catholic Church CRISIS AND COLLAPSE Byzantine empire in decline by Great Schism As the empire faltered, enemies advanced
Byzantine emperor asked West for help to fight Seljuk Turks (Islamic) Led to First Crusades By Fourth Crusade Constantinople trade had fallen to Venetians 1453: Ottoman Turks surrounded Constantinople
Mehmet II renamed Constantinople- BYZANTINE HERITAGE
Their influence reached across Europe Ottomans adapted features of Byzantine government, social life, architecture Continued to spread on build on Hellenistic world Unique contributions in Arts Many books written, especially on history
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