The Role of Theory - St. Johns County School District

The Role of Theory - St. Johns County School District

Chapter 2 Causes of Crime 2015 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 1 Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.

2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Role of Theory Theory An explanation of a happening or circumstance that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning Hypothesis A possible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation

Tested using the scientific method 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Role of Theory 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 2 Contrast positivism with classical criminology.

AP Images/Sue Ogrocki 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Choice theory Offenders make a rational choice to commit crime. Defendant may not be punished as harshly if it can be proven that she or he lacked the ability to make a

rational choice. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Classical criminology Before committing a crime, a person weighs the benefits of the crime against the costs of being apprehended. Cesare Beccaria: Essays on Crime and Punishments

Decisions are a result of rational choices. Fear of punishment has a deterrent effect. Swift and certain punishment is the most powerful deterrent to criminal offending. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Positivism Criminal behavior is determined by biological,

psychological, and social forces beyond the control of the individual. Cesare Lombroso is the Father of Criminology. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Rational choice theory Before committing a crime, a person acts as if he/she is weighing the benefits against the costs.

If the perceived benefits are greater than the potential costs, the person is more likely to commit the crime. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 3 Explain how brain-scanning technology is able to help scientists determine if an individual is at risk for criminal offending.

Yakobchuk Vasyl/Shutterstock.com 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Genetics: a branch of biology that deals with traits that are passed through generations When the warrior gene is combined with history of abuse as child, there is an increased risk for violence. Criminal activity in males is linked to elevated levels of

testosterone. Neurocriminology is the study of how genetics and brain activity influence criminal behavior. While there may be a correlation between mental illness and violence, such illnesses cannot be said to cause violent behavior. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Brain and The Body Freuds psychoanalytic theory

The id, ego, and superego Social psychology How humans relate to and influence one another Trait theory Biological and psychological views of criminality that suggest antisocial behavior should be identified and treated before it manifests itself

2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 4 List and describe the three theories of social structure that help explain crime. Scott Olson/ Getty Images 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Bad Neighborhoods and Other Economic

Disadvantages Sociological theories The Chicago School Social disorganization theory Strain theory

Cultural deviance theory 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Bad Neighborhoods and Other Economic Disadvantages 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 5

Describe the social conflict theory known as the social reality of crime. Michael DeMocker/The Times-Picayune/Landov 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Bad Neighborhoods and Other Economic Disadvantages Social conflict theories Marxism vs. capitalism

Marx believed that capitalist economic systems necessarily produce income inequality and lead to exploitation Patterns of social justice Issues of race and ethnicity Racial threat theory: based on the hypothesis that, as the size of a minority group increases in population and expands geographically, members of the majority group use the criminal justice system to oppress those minority groups

Implications for public policy 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 6 List and briefly explain the three branches of social process theory. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Life Lessons & Criminal Behavior

Social process theories Learning theory Control theory Labeling theory Social process theory and public policy Crime prevention focuses on juvenile offenders and steering them away from offending and the system. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Learning Objective 7 Describe the importance of early childhood behavior for those who subscribe to selfcontrol theory. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Life Lessons & Criminal Behavior Life course theories Self-control theory

Possibility of change Life-course-persistent offenders Adolescent-limited offenders Turning points Life course theories relate to public policy 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Learning Objective 8

Contrast the medical model of addiction with the criminal model of addiction. Cheryl Senter/The New York Times/Redux 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Link between Drugs & Crime Social disorganization theory Control theory Learning process

Techniques of drug use Perception of effects of drug use Enjoy the social experience of drug use 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Link between Drugs & Crime 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Link between Drugs & Crime Drug addiction and dependency Drug abuse is the use of drugs that results in physical or psychological harm to the abuser or third parties The brains dopaminergic system is the key to understanding many drugs of abuse The drug-crime relationship Drug-defined offenses violation of drug laws Drug-related offenses crimes motivated by drug abuse

Drug-using lifestyle rely on crime for means of survival 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Link between Drugs & Crime Models of addiction The medical model of addiction Addicts are not criminals, but mentally or physically ill individuals who are forced into acts of petty crime to feed their habit.

Under the enslavement theory, addicts should be treated for their addiction as a disease and not be punished as criminals. The criminal model of addiction Illegal drug abusers and addicts endanger society with their behavior and should be punished the same as persons who commit non drug-related crimes. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Link between Drugs & Crime Marijuana law trends Legalization Decriminalization Issues Edibles Diversion 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Learning Objective 9 Explain the theory of the chronic offender and its importance for the criminal justice system. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. From Theory to Practice Chronic offender Career criminal A small group of offenders (6%) are responsible for a

disproportionate amount of crime. Habitual offenders laws provide harsher sentences for repeat offenders. 2017 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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