The Republic of China (Taiwan) Republic of China 1912 First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925) ROC Constitution (1946) First constitutional president (1948 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975) Defeated by CCP in 1949
Retreated to Taiwan Authoritarian rule for a quarter century ROC Government President (4-year term after 1996) The Five ``Yuan: Executive Yuan Legislative Yuan Judicial Yuan
Examination Yuan Control Yuan 2 Provinces and 18 counties Taiwan before 1949 Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka) 1885, Qing government promoted Taiwan from prefecture to province
1895, ceded to Japan 1945, returned to Republic of China ``Taiwanese versus ``mainlanders Fujian 70%, Hakka 15%, ``mainlanders 13% Taiwan & Islands Area: 13,900 square miles Population: 23 million Chiang Kai-sheks Rule
Popular elections at the basic level Land reform 9-year compulsory education Economic take-off from 1960s Export processing zones attract foreign direct
investment Industrialization strengthens manufacturing sector Chiangs One-China Policy ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits ``Gloriously retake the mainland Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC
ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971 Lee Teng-hui (1923 - ) Succeeded Chiang Kai-sheks son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988 Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996 Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain
power in 2000 Chen Shui-bian (1950 - ) Leader of the pro-independent Democratic Progressive Party President of ROC 2000-2008 Prisoner #2630 since 2008-11-12 Diplomatic Tug of War 162 countries recognize PRC (Beijing) as
the legitimate government of China 8 (49) 32 (59) 49 (69) 113 (79) 129 (89) 29 countries recognize ROC (Taipei) as the legitimate government of China US Official Policy US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979 US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act
in 1979 American Institute in Taiwan Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US Economic Ties Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government Workaround: Hong Kong and Macau ``Three links:
mail, transportation, and trade Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) was signed in 2010 Taiwan's Export to Mainland China (billion US$) 80 70
60 50 40 In 2012, Taiwans exports to Mainland China was $132 billion, and imports from Mainland China was $37
Taiwan's Investment on Mainland China (billion US$) 4.5 4 3.5 3
2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5
0 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
2004 2005 Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR Land & People 422 square miles
Hong Kong Island Kowloon Peninsular New Territories Outlying islands 7 million residents 95% Chinese Brief History
HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841 New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898 Occupied by Japan during World War II Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s industrialization of Hong Kong
One of the four ``Asian Tigers Negotiations with UK Deng Xiaoping: 1 country, 2 systems PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R. PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984 Handover to PRC 7th National Peoples Congress adopted
Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990 Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997 Basic Law of Hong Kong SAR Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984 Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland
Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990 Came into effect on July 1, 1997 Constitutional document for HKSAR 3 Principles in the Basic Law ``One Country, Two Systems Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5) ``High Degree of Autonomy
``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong ``One Country, Two Systems Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8) `` High Degree of Autonomy HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and
independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2) ``HK People Running HK executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3) public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong, with some exceptions
Central Peoples Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14) authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13) HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)
Rights and Freedoms freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage.. the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike
3 Branches of Political Structure Chief Executive C. Y. Leung Legislative Council Court of Final Appeal S/election of CE & Legco Shall be specified in the light of the actual
situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68) The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68) S/election of Chief Executive 800-member Election Committee
industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4 the professions 1/4 labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4 Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4 C. Y. Leung (2012 - 2017) no more than two consecutive terms S/election of 60-member Legco
Since 1997 Freedoms and rights substantially intact dissident groups Falun Gong
Judicial system remains the same Weak executive and strong civil service Lack of political skills Multiple political parties Hong Kongs Competitiveness Geographic location one of the best deep-water ports in the world
hardworking well-educated workforce literacy rate 94% ``Worlds Freest Economy exports and imports each (~ US$ half trillion) greater than GDP GDP per capita: US$56,700 (PPP 2015) no VAT, sales, capital gains tax, or tariffs only 3 types of income are taxed: profits, salaries, and property
But, nearly half live in public or subsidized housing Influence on Mainland China
US$400 billion direct investment each way Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland
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