chlorophyll density & temperature Link between producers & grazers
Measuring Primary Productivity: Inferences Each direct measure of GPP has disadvantages Computer models integrate different parameters to estimate rates of productivity through the water column and over time
Model components (Field et al. Science 281:237-240) chlorophyll concentration water depth in photic zone fraction of water column where photosynthesis is light-saturated
surface temperature Results of productivity model Some patterns
average primary productivity in the oceans is ~50 g C/m2/yr 300 g C/m2/yr considered relatively high rate of primary productivity low rates of primary productivity typically 20 to
30 g C/m2/yr What accounts for this variation? Comparing the makeup of water and plankton
Mean Elemental Ratios of N, and P Organisms: 16.0N / 1P Sea Water: 14.7N / 1P On average, seawater lacks sufficient organic N to take advantage of the available
phosphorus Limited water mixing further limits nutrient availability
Testing models: measuring plankton in open oceans Techniques for studying plankton consumers Plankton levels may be dropping (NASA
study) Changes in Productivity From productivity to food webs:
A size-based pelagic food web Grazing pressure Limits & Flows of NPP
Marine Snow krill
A spatially realistic pelagic food web What are links among trophic levels in pelagic systems?
Large phytoplankton vary with depth Nutrient distribution with depth Distribution of food web biomass
The global nitrogen cycle Influences on biologically useful Nitrogen
Diatom mats can migrate vertically Consequences of active transport of NO3 Links to oceanic nekton
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