The Industrial Revolution - Dr. Astorian's AP Consortium
The Industrial Revolution Y O U H A D A G O O D R U N, E N V I R O N M E N T. SOR RY AB O UT AL L T H E C OA L. Overview Credit & Banking Expand Dramatic Improvements in Transport Rail Steamships Roads Rising Agricultural
Productivity Rapid Urbanization Increased Demand for Manufactured Goods Mechanized, Factory Production Rural Production Down, Marginalization of Artisans Appalling Urban Conditions Lurid Accounts Calls for State-Sponsored
Reform Skilled Workers Protest Harsh Conditions Prolitarianization Socialism Background to Transformation Intensification of existing forms of production Traditional organization Major changes only in mid-19th century Demographic explosion Disease and famine Cholera Potato famine (1840s) Tuberculosis
Why Declining Death Rate? Smallpox vaccinations Greater attention to hygiene Cleaner water Sand filters, iron pipes, reservoirs Increased life expectancy among all classes Lower infant mortality Safer water supply Better waste disposal Decline of wet nursing Fresh/sterilized milk Declining birth rates Period of relative peace Expanding Agricultural Base Sustained population growth Market-oriented farming supports accumulation of capital More land under cultivation
Yields increase: England 3x grain Less fallow land Fertilizers and intensive techniques Continent- Not as much consolidation France: N=Rotation, larger plots; S=Small division-wine Germany: Production 2x population growth Balkans and Russia Subsistence farming Serfdom cripples growth Trains 1820: First to haul coal
in N. England 1830: Passenger train between Liverpool and Manchester Expansion 100 miles of rail in 1832; 6600 in 1852 200,000 employed; Landscape transformed Catalyst for investment Middle class investors Spurs metallurgy
Revolutionary effects Shipping costs reduced by 2/3rds Increased consumption, production Fresh milk, frozen meat Displaced population State role Ties places, people together
France=Semi-public Austria, Belgium= state control Mail Travel Speeds up time Environmental costs Steamships and Roads 1816: Liverpool to Boston in 17 days (1/2 time) 1830s-40s: River travel Canals Improved roads Society in the Industrial Revolution
CHANGES AND CHALLENGES Continuities on the Land Agricultural improvements, end of serfdom lead to movement to cities Unrest against landowners in 1830s and 1840s Rural poverty severe Share tiny homes with animals Often windowless Serfdom exists in Austria until 1848, Russia until 1861 Diets extremely poor
Rye bread, porridge, potatoes (north); cabbage (central and east), onions and garlic (France) Wine in south; beer or cider in north Emigration to North America in 1830s-40s Irish (Potato famine) German states Urbanization By 1850: Britain, population urbanized France, only 1/4 live in towns larger than 2,000 London grows from 900,ooo to 2,300,000 Paris 550,000 to 1,000,000 Farther east, towns fewer and smaller Problems with sewage, housing, pollution, crime (6x) Better transportation=suburbs
Middle classes withdraw into elite districts or, in England, to posh suburbs Increased social segregation; visibility of differences in classes Cities populated by migrants from the country Women in the Workforce Domestic service: 40% of women in workforce Higher literacy Better social mobility Country women:
Spinning, weaving (cottage industry) Work in fields Urban women: Laundresses Seamstresses Street merchants Prostitutes Industry: Work in factories, especially textiles
Relatively small part of workforce Male workers resent Low-skilled labor = low pay Women and Families Working women=Less dependent on parents Marry earlier Marriage still economic relationship Increase in out-of-wedlock births Factories = Separation of home and work Many mothers leave to care for children Prostitution
Governments register, regulate Middle-class sees as moral failure Movement toward men working, women remaining home Child Labor Children always worked in agriculture Small size, cheapness=highly employable 1830s: 1/3 of workforce Sometimes entire families in factories Fathers supervise Work often dangerous Child labor laws Britain in 1832
France in 1841 Laboring Poor Industrialization increases employment High wages for male skilled workers Cheaper goods=Higher incomes British workers better off than others Paternalism Poor Laws
Poor working conditions Artisan incomes, employment fall Gap between rich and poor increases Housing miserable Class consciousness proletarianization Artisans first to demonstrate Over-supply
Luddites Chartism Wm. Lovett founds London Workingmens Association Great Charter Democratization Universal Male Suffrage Annual Elections Secret Ballots Equal electoral districts Object to monopoly of wealth and political influences
Divided between peaceful moral force and violent physical force groups 1839: Parliament rejects Chartist petition (1.3 mil) 1842: Parliament rejects another signed by 3.3 mil. Stop Economics of the Early 19th Century L I B E R A L I S M V. S O C I A L I S M : T H E E T E R N A L B AT T L E B E G I N S Classical Liberalism Begins with on Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations
Rational self-interest leads to best economic outcomes Liberalism based on individualism and individual freedom Favor economic growth through free enterprise Laissez-faire: Government/other intervention usually interferes with the proper functioning of the economy, leading to poor outcomes Market solutions are usually the best solutions
Recognize role for government in defense, preserving property rights, enforcing contracts Key Classical Liberals Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) David Ricardo (1772-1823) Essay on the Principle Principals of Political of Population (1798) Population will outstrip food supply
Geometric v. arithmetic Late marriage, chastity only way to slow Failed to recognize technological development Economy (1817) Comparative Advantage Proves that free trade always benefits both parties Iron Law of Wages Wages will always return to
subsistence level Higher wages=More children=larger labor force=lower wages Classical Economics and Policy France Germany July Monarchy Absolutist tradition encourages pursuit of wealth Oversee construction of large capital
projects interferes with liberal economic growth Zollverein (1834) Liberalized trade among all major German states outside of Austria Liberal Economics in Britain Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Utilitarianism: All human activity should be based on the amount of happiness it provides Believed in government intervene on behalf the disadvantaged Governments can provide most happiness by providing most
freedom Two major steps: Poor Law (1834): Workhouses Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846) Landed interests fight Lower food prices = Higher wages Lower tariffs = Lower prices for British goods = Higher exports Socialism Socialists call for fundamental change in property ownership
Urge end to private ownership of means of production. Perhaps distribution = state/corporate ownership. State ownership = Serve interests of all people People can learn to be cooperative, not competitive Utopian Socialists Robert Owen (1771-1858) New Lanark, Scotland (New Harmony, IN)
Experimental Factories Good surroundings=Improved character Provided good quarters, recreation, education Most important, provides incentives Higher profits Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) Focus of government should be on economic issues Technocracy directed economy Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Urged self-sufficient socialist phalanx communities Individuals will do work they most enjoy and frequent job changes Fails Anarchism:
Also seeks end of private property and capitalism Also seeks destruction of the state itself Marxism Karl Marx (1818-1883) Radical German philosopher, journalist Moves to Paris in 1844, collaborates with Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Engels had lived in Manchester (Conditions of the Working Class in England (1845) Communist Manifesto (1848) scientific socialismtheory of revolutionary change Based on Hegelian historical dialectic
Materialism and determinism Class struggle: Feudal to bourgeois to proletariat to dictatorship of the proletariat to the end of all classes Reorganize society, state control of means of production and distribution 1848 T H E Y E A R O F R E V O LU T I O N S Background to Revolution 1837: Recession, wide-spread unemployment 1840s: The Hungry Forties Revolution urban, middle-class, and liberal Why France? French liberals alone in replacing monarchy with a republic French liberals embrace universal suffrage
Elsewhere, liberals support property qualifications Nationalism in Central Europe German, Austrian, Italian revolutions characterized by nationalism Germany & Italy: Seek Unification Austria: Seek break up and nationhood The Revolution in France Banquets protesting Louis- Philippe banned (Feb 1848) Increasingly arbitrary
government Spontaneous riots Second Republic proclaimed Provisional government Socialists v. Moderates Louis Blanc placed in charge of establishing workshops for unemployed Radicals dominate Paris and cities, but country conservative
Moderates dominate elections Workshops shut down Suppression of June Days Revolt Workers revolt in protest in June 1848 Provisional government crushes revolt Constitution of the Second Republic
Nov 1848 Universal manhood suffrage Unicameral, presidential Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1803-1873) Won election as president Establishes dictatorship as Napoleon III Revolutions in Austria Ferdinand I ruled: Authority led by Metternich
Uprisings in Vienna in March Response to Paris Constituent assembly drafts constitution Abolished the Robot, ending peasants need for revolt Metternich falls in March 1848 Government regains control
Dec 1848: Swartzenberg arranges for Francis abdication, 18 year-old Franz-Joseph (r. 1848-1916) takes over, denies predecessors commitments Assembly asks for decentralization, Swartzenberg denies Franz Joseph suspends constitution, returns centralized rule Revolt in Hungary and Bohemia Hungary Bohemia Louis Kossuth demands Czechs revolt in self-government (Mar 1848) March Laws establish
elected parliament, abolish serfdom Prague (Mar 1848) Austrian govt accepts Austria moves against in 1849 Kossuth declared independence Czar Nicholas sends 100,000
troops to help crush Austrians promise assembly Pan-Slav Congress calls for solidarity against Austria Austria crushes uprising in June Revolutions in Italy Revolts against Austria and princely rulers Revolts in the Two Sicilies (Bourbon), Piedmont-Sardinia (Savoy), Venice and Lombardy (Habsburg) Liberal constitutions granted in Sicilies and Piedmont Suppression of Revolution
Suppressed in Two Sicilies (May 1848) Austrians (Radetzky) defeat Piedmontese (July 1848), then restore control over Lombardy Feb 1849, Garibaldi, Mazzarini, other revolutionaries proclaim Roman Republic in Papal States Mar 1849, Austrians re-defeat Piedmontese Victor Emmanuel II replaces father as king
Apr 1849, Louis Napoleon crushes republic in Papal States, take Rome in June Austrians crush revolution in Tuscany (May) and in Venice (Aug) Revolution in Germany German liberals call for reform and unification March Days in Berlin Frederick IV (r. 1840-61) initiates some liberal reforms, ends censorship Announces assembly to draft Prussian constitution
Meets from May-autumn Elsewhere, preliminary assembly calls for national assembly German National Assembly Begins deliberations in Frankfurt in May 1848 Elected by universal manhood suffrage Gross- or Kleindeutschland? Include Austria and the Habsburgs, or not? Kleindeutschland wins out
Emperor unlikely to allow a liberal constitution Empire is non-German Collapse of Revolution Prussian Constitution Frederick Wilhelm IV loses enthusiasm, begins to suppress revolution Dissolves Prussian constitutional assembly in Dec 1848 King issues his own constitution Bicameral parliament Upper chamber: Junkers Lower house: Wealthiest 20% elect 2/3rds of members King retains absolute veto, can rule by decree
Humiliation of Olmtz March 1849-National assembly completes constitution Offers crown to Frederick Wilhelm IV; he declines King tries to form a north German confederation Austria opposes, forces Prussia to give in Nov 1850 Summary By 1850, conservative order restored Remaining changes slight France: Arbitrary rule of Louis-Philippe Orleans replaced by that of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte
Austria: Franz-Joseph replaces mentally-incompetent Ferdinand I, centralized Austrian rule re-established Robot, serfdom abolished Italy: Austrians, French help to overthrow revolution Piedmont-Sardinia retains liberal constitution Liberal constitutionalists universally defeated Ideas live on: Italy unifies in 1860s, Hungary gains selfgovernment in 1867; Germany united by 1871
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