The Haitian Revolution What factors caused the Haitian Revolution? To what extent was it influenced by ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution? Background
Treaty of Ryswick 1695
Africans and engags for labor 1685 Negro codes punishments High mortality / low fertility Slave population 500,000 most Africanborn The importance of Haiti COLONIAL SOCIAL PYRAMID
HAITIAN SOCIETY HOW DOES THE PAINTING REFLECT THE COMPLICATED RACIAL REALITIES OF HAITIAN COLONIAL SOCIETY?
HORRIBLE ABUSES OF SLAVERY Horrible conditions for slaves (87% pop.): For the least fault the slaves received the harshest punishment. In 1685 the Negro Code authorised [sic] whipping, and in 1702 one colonist, a Marquis, thought any punishment which
demanded more than 100 blows of the whip was serious enough to be handed over to the authorities. Later the number was fixed at 39, then raised to 50. But the colonists paid no attention to these regulations and slaves were not unfrequently whipped to death. The slaves received the whip with more certainty and regularity than they received their foodMutilations were common, limbs, ears, and sometimes the private partsTheir
masters poured burning wax on their arms and hands and shoulders, emptied the boiling cane sugar over their heads, burned them alive, roasted them on slow fires, filled them with gunpowder and blew them up with a match James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins. New York: Vintage Books. 1963. p. 12. The French Revolution
The National Convention abolished slavery TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE RAISES AN ARMY IN RESISTANCE TO FRENCH
COLONIALS SUPPORTS THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT WHEN IT ABOLISHES SLAVERY FIGHTS THE BRITISH (WHO WERE TRYING TO TAKE ST. DOMINGUE)
NAMED GOVERNORGENERAL IN 1799 1802 NAPOLEON TRIES TO RECAPTURE HAITI NAPOLEON INVITES LOUVERTURE TO A
CONFERENCE LOUVERTURE ACCEPTS AND HES ARRESTED >> DIED IN FRENCH PRISON IN 1803 JEAN-JACQUES
DESSALINES TOOK OVER THE
HAITIAN ARMY AFTER LOUVERTURES CAPTURE DEFEATED THE FRENCH >> NOV. 18, 1803 DECLARES HAITI A REPUBLIC ON JAN. 1,
1804 For Discussion / Consideration: Were the slaves driven by Enlightenment ideas or other factors? Why is the Haitian Revolution so important? (some historians have called it the most
significant revolution in history) What effects do you think it may have had on the Americas?
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