Introduction to GT3 The Globus Project Argonne National Laboratory USC Information Sciences Institute Copyright (C) 2003 University of Chicago and The University of Southern California. All Rights Reserved. presentation is licensed for use under the terms of the Globus Toolkit Public License. See http://www.globus.Org/toolkit/download/license.html for the full text of this license. This Introduction to GT3 Background GT3 Architecture and Functionality: The Latest Refinement of the Globus Toolkit
June 2003 GGF8 Core Base Services User-Defined Services Future Directions Installation and Administration The Grid Problem The Globus Approach OGSA & OGSI Globus Toolkit Installation Configuration
Debugging Support Important Things to Remember Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 2 A Story of Evolution Definition of Grid problem has been stable since original Globus Project proposal in 1995 Though weve gotten better at articulating it But our approach to its solution has evolved: From APIs and custom protocols to standard protocols to Grid services (OGSA). Driven by experience implementing and deploying the Globus Toolkit, and building real applications with
it June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 3 What is a Grid? We believe there are three key criteria: Coordinates distributed resources using standard, open, general-purpose protocols and interfaces to deliver non-trivial qualities of service. What is not a Grid? A cluster, a network attached storage device, a scientific instrument, a network, etc. Each is an important component of a Grid, but by itself does not constitute a Grid June 2003 GGF8
Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 4 Challenging Technical Requirements Dynamic formation and management of virtual organizations Discovery & online negotiation of access to services: who, what, why, when, how Configuration of applications and systems able to deliver multiple qualities of service Autonomic management of distributed infrastructures, services, and applications
Management of distributed state Open, extensible, evolvable infrastructure June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 5 The Globus Project Making Grid computing a reality (since 1996)
Close collaboration with real Grid projects in science and industry The Globus Toolkit: Open source software base for building Grid infrastructure and applications Development and promotion of standard Grid protocols to enable interoperability and shared infrastructure Development and promotion of standard Grid software APIs to enable portability and code sharing Global Grid Forum: We co-founded GGF to foster Grid standardization and community June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 6 From APIs & Custom Protocols, To Standard Protocols API Application Programming Interface
A specification for a set of routines to facilitate application development Refers to definition, not implementation Often language-specific (or IDL) Routine name, number, order and type of arguments; mapping to language constructs Behavior or function of routine Examples of APIs GSS-API (security), MPI (message passing) June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 8 Network Protocol
A formal description of message formats and a set of rules for message exchange Rules may define sequence of message exchanges Protocol may define state-change in endpoint, e.g., file system state change Good protocols designed to do one thing Protocols can be layered Examples of protocols IP, TCP, TLS (was SSL), HTTP, Kerberos June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 9 A Protocol can have Multiple APIs
TCP/IP APIs include BSD sockets, Winsock, System V streams, The protocol provides interoperability: programs using different APIs can exchange information I dont need to know remote users API Application Application WinSock API Berkeley Sockets API TCP/IP Protocol: Reliable byte streams June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0
10 An API can have Multiple Protocols An API provides portability: any correct program compiles & runs on a platform Does not provide interoperability: all processes must link against same SDK E.g., MPICH and LAM versions of MPI Application Application MPI API MPI API LAM SDK MPICH-P4 SDK LAM protocol
TCP/IP June 2003 GGF8 Different message formats, exchange sequences, etc. Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 MPICH-P4 protocol TCP/IP 11 Initial Focus On APIs and Custom Protocols Primary concern was allowing Grid applications to be built quickly, in order to demonstrate feasibility Good development APIs and SDKs mattered most
Protocols were a means to an end We borrowed and extended standard protocols to make life easier (e.g. LDAP) We defined custom protocols (e.g. GRAM) June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 12 But Focus Shifted To Protocols As demand grew, customers worried about: compatibility between versions (i.e. Stop changing the protocols!) independent implementations of some components (i.e. What are the protocols?) Ubiquitous adoption demands open, standard protocols Internet and Web as guides
Enables innovation/competition on end points Avoid product/vendor lock-in June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 13 Layered Grid Architecture Coordinating multiple resources: ubiquitous infrastructure services, app-specific distributed services Sharing single resources: negotiating access, controlling use Collective Application Resource Talking to things: communication (Internet protocols) & security Connectivity
Transport Internet Controlling things locally: Access to, & control of, resources Fabric Link The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations, Foster, Kesselman, Tuecke, Intl Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 15(3), 2001. June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 14 Internet Protocol Architecture Application Layers of Grid Architecture June 2003 GGF8
Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 15 GT2 Key Protocols The Globus Toolkit v2 (GT2) centers around four key protocols Connectivity layer: >Security: Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) Resource layer: >Resource Management: Grid Resource Allocation Management (GRAM) >Information Services: Grid Resource Information Protocol (GRIP) >Data Transfer: Grid File Transfer Protocol (GridFTP) Also key collective layer protocols Info Services, Replica Management, etc. June 2003 GGF8
Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 16 Protocol Standards Efforts X.509 Proxy Certificate Profile GGF & IETF GridFTP Protocol GGF June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 17 From Standard Protocols, To Grid Services But Along The Way
Heterogeneous protocol base was hurting us Increasing number of virtual services that needed to be managed Web services (WSDL, SOAP) appeared June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 19 Web Services At the heart of Web services is: WSDL: Language for defining abstract service interfaces SOAP (and friends): Binding from WSDL to bytes on the wire
Web services appears to offer a fighting chance at ubiquity (unlike CORBA) But Web services does not go far enough to serve a common base for the Grid June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 20 Transient Service Instances Web services address discovery & invocation of persistent services Interface to persistent state of entire enterprise
In Grids, must also support transient service instances, created/destroyed dynamically Interfaces to the states of distributed activities E.g. workflow, video conf., dist. data analysis, subscription Significant implications for how services are managed, named, discovered, and used In fact, much of Grid is concerned with the management of service instances June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 21 Standard Interfaces & Behaviors: Four Interrelated Concepts Naming and bindings Every service instance has a unique name, from which can discover supported bindings
Lifecycle Service instances created by factories Destroyed explicitly or via soft state Information model Service data associated with Grid service instances, operations for accessing this info Basis for service introspection, monitoring, discovery Notification Interfaces for registering existence, and delivering notifications of changes to service data June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 22 Grid Evolution:
Open Grid Services Architecture Refactor Globus protocol suite to enable common base and expose key capabilities Service orientation to virtualize resources and unify resources/services/information Embrace key Web services technologies for standard IDL, leverage commercial efforts Result: standard interfaces & behaviors for distributed system management: the Grid service June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0
23 OGSA Structure A standard substrate: the Grid service OGSI = Open Grid Service Infrastructure Standard interfaces and behaviors that address key distributed system issues Much borrowed from GT abstractions supports standard service specifications Resource mgt, dbms, workflow, security, Target of current & planned GGF efforts and arbitrary application-specific services based on these & other definitions June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0
24 OGSI Grid Service Specification Defines WSDL conventions and GSDL extensions For describing and structuring services Working with W3C WSDL working group to drive GSDL extensions into WSDL Defines fundamental interfaces (using WSDL) and behaviors that define a Grid Service A unifying framework for interoperability & establishment of total system properties June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 25 Globus Toolkit (GT)
A software system addressing key technical problems in the development of Grid-enabled tools, services, and applications Offer a modular set of orthogonal services Middleware for building solutions, not turn-key Enable incremental development of Grid-enabled tools and applications Implement and inform Grid standards Available under liberal open source license Large community of developers & users Multiple commercial support providers June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 26 Why Open Source is Important Leverages large body of code and experience Efforts of a large e-Science community
Encourages adoption of open standards Reference implementation, community pressure Facilitates integration of new platforms Port the implementation Allows vendors to focus on value add Platforms, integration, higher-level services, turnkey applications, training, support June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 27 OGSA and the Globus Toolkit Technically, OGSA enables Refactoring of protocols (GRAM, MDS, GridFTP), while
preserving all GT concepts/features! Integration with hosting environments: simplifying components, distribution, etc. Greatly expanded standard service set Pragmatically, we are proceeding as follows Develop open source OGSA implementation > Globus Toolkit 3.0; supports Globus Toolkit 2.0 APIs Partnerships for service development Also expect commercial value-adds June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 28 GT2 Evolution To GT3 What happened to the GT2 key protocols? Security: Adapting X.509 proxy certs to integrate with emerging WS standards
GRIP/LDAP: Abstractions integrated into OGSI as serviceData GRAM: ManagedJobFactory and related service definitions GridFTP: Unchanged in 3.0, but will evolve into OGSIcompliant service in 2004 Also rendering collective services in terms of OGSI: RFT, RLS, etc. June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 29 GT Timeline GT 1.0: 1998 GRAM, MDS
Tested, documented, etc. June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 30 Summary The Grid: Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized control; using standard, open, generalpurpose protocols and interfaces; to deliver non-trivial qualities of service. Considerable impact within eScience, growing interest & adoption within eBusiness Globus Toolkit an open source, defacto standard source of protocol and API definitionsand reference implementations
GT3 is evolution of the Globus Toolkit path June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 31 Tutorial Prep cp Rp /opt/ogsa-3.0.0 ~ cd ~/ogsa-3.0.0 ant setup export GLOBUS_LOCATION=`pwd` mkdir tutorial ; cd tutorial export TUTORIAL_DIR=`pwd`
mkdir gt3tutorial http://www.casa-sotomayor.net/gt3tutorial/ June 2003 GGF8 Introduction to Globus Toolkit 3.0 32
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