The End of Jim Crow

The End of Jim Crow

Civil Rights & Black Power Created by Mr. Johnson

1945-1970 Mr. Johnson U.S. History African American medalists, 1968 Olympics Objective 11.02 Trace major events

in the civil rights movement and evaluate its impact. Major Concepts & Key Terms The Civil Rights Movement

De jure segregation De facto segregation Affirmative action Turning points Changes in State & Federal Legislation Executive Actions

Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Black Power movement Montgomery bus boycotts

Rosa Parks Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm X

Black Panthers Stokely Carmichael CORE SNCC March on Washington James Meredith Little Rock Nine George Wallace

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954 Thurgood Marshall Earl Warren 24th Amendment Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965

Cracks in Jim Crows Armor Origin of Jim Crow Thomas D. Rices minstrel shows The Happy Slave

Jim Crow Laws Segregation (Plessy decision) Disfranchisement Poll Tax Literacy Test Grandfather Clause

Executive Actions: FDR Executive Order 8802 No racial discrimination by government contractors Strikes and

demonstrations War industry Executive Actions: Truman Committee on Civil Rights, 1946 Recommendations Trumans executive

orders Banned discrimination in hiring of federal employees Integration of the Armed Forces Integration of the Armed Forces

Dixiecrats States Rights Democratic Party Strom Thurmond Abandoned Truman in the 1948 election b/c

of civil rights Election of 1948 Jackie Robinson, 1947 Signed by Branch Rickey in 1947 Broke the color line in baseball

Achievements Rookie of the Year, 1947 .311 career batting average Six All-Star games Jackie Robinson, 1947

School Integratio n: The Fight in Court Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 Separate but Equal decision

Legalized segregation Segregation 14th Amendment equal protection De jure segregation

segregation by law common in south De facto segregation

segregation as a matter of fact common in north & south often achieved by intimidation continues today School Segregation Laws Terminology

Desegregation = Integration Thurgood Marshall NAACP Legal Defense Fund Thurgood

Marshall (national coordinat or) Oliver Hill (Virginia) McLaurin v. Oklahoma B.O.R., 1950

McLaurin, retired professor Oklahoma University School of Education Side desk Not allowed to mingle

Supreme Court rules that conditions impair education McLaurin v. Oklahoma B.O.R., 1950

Sweatt v. Painter, 1950 Hemon Sweatt was denied admission to University of Texas Law School Sent to separate black law school

Staff Library Students LDF targeted Supreme Courts knowledge of quality legal training Court ruled in Sweatts favor

Elementary & Secondary Schools Davis v. Pr. Edward County VA, 1952 Challenged segregation in Virginia

Was one of four cases that became Brown v. Board Virginia NAACP lawyer Oliver Hill Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 Topeka,

Kansas Parents challenged the segregated school system The Doll Test Black children

selected the white doll as good and smart and pretty Demonstrate d psychological impact of

segregation Warren Courts Unanimous Decision Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 14th Amendment Topeka,

Kansas Separate is not equal Overturned Plessy Ordered nationwide integration

Landmark case Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 Massive Resistanc e

Slow Pace Brown decision All deliberate speed Significant integration did not begin until mid/late

1960s Resistance to Brown in Virginia Led by Harry Byrd, segregationist politician Some public schools in Virginia closed down from

1959-1964 rather than integrate black students Confederate Flag Resurrecte d symbol of the Civil War

Resistance to integration The Little Rock Nine, 1957 Eisenhower James Meredith, 1961 JFK

George Wallace States rights Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever! Alabama

governor Presidential candidate George Wallaces Stand, 1963 White Flight New private & religious

schools Separate neighborhoods suburbia Resegregation The Peoples Movemen

t Bob Dylan Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam And admit that the waters Around you have grown And accept it that soon You'll be drenched to the bone.

If your time to you Is worth savin' Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone For the times they are a-changin'. Bob Dylan Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your pen

And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again And don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin And there's no tellin' who That it's namin'. For the loser now Will be later to win For the times they are a-changin'.

Bob Dylan Come senators, congressmen Please heed the call Don't stand in the doorway Don't block up the hall For he that gets hurt Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside

And it is ragin'. It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls For the times they are a-changin'. Bob Dylan Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land And don't criticize

What you can't understand Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command Your old road is Rapidly agin'. Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a-changin'.

Bob Dylan The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is Rapidly fadin'.

And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a-changin'. Organizations NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People CORE Congress of Racial Equality SNCC Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 Beginning of civil rights movement Economic

pressure Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955 Nonviolent Resistance Sit-In Movement, 1960

Freedom Rides, 1961 Freedom Rides, 1961 Birmingham, 1963 Birmingham, 1963

March on Washington, 1963 I Have a Dream Text, Video & Audi o of the Address Civil Rights Act of 1964

1) Same requirements for black & white voters 2) Prohibits discrimination in public accommodations 3) Withholding of federal funds from discriminatory programs and businesses 4) Bans discrimination based on race, sex,

religion and national origin by employers & unions; creates EEOC Filibuster Southern Democrats Robert C. Byrd (WV) Former Klansman 14 hour speech

Still in Congress today!!! The Act Becomes Law Voting Rights Act of 1965 Federal officials may register voters

when local offices block African Americans Eliminated literacy tests 24th Amendment, 1964 Eliminated poll

tax The Young Radicals Harlem Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up

Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? Gil Scott-Heron

The Revolution Will Not be Televised Gil Scott-Heron You will not be able to stay home, brother. You will not be able to plug in, turn on and cop out.

You will not be able to lose yourself on skag [heroin] and skip out for beer during commercials, Because the revolution will not be televised. Gil Scott-Heron The revolution will not be televised. The revolution will not be brought to you by Xerox in 4 parts without commercial

interruptions. The revolution will not show you pictures of Nixon blowing a bugle and leading a charge by John Mitchell, General Abrams and Spiro Agnew to eat hog maws confiscated from a Harlem sanctuary. The revolution will not be televised. Gil Scott-Heron

The revolution will not be brought to you by the Schaefer Award Theatre and will not star Natalie Woods and Steve McQueen or Bullwinkle and Julia. The revolution will not give your mouth sex appeal. The revolution will not get rid of the nubs. The revolution will not make you look five pounds thinner, because the revolution will not

be televised, Brother. Gil Scott-Heron There will be no pictures of you and Willie May pushing that shopping cart down the block on the dead run, or trying to slide that color television into a stolen ambulance. NBC will not be able predict the winner at 8:32 or report from 29 districts.

The revolution will not be televised. Gil Scott-Heron There will be no pictures of pigs [police] shooting down brothers in the instant replay. There will be no pictures of pigs shooting down brothers in the instant replay. There will be no pictures of Whitney Young [civil rights activist] being run out of Harlem on

a rail with a brand new process. There will be no slow motion or still life of Roy Wilkins [civil rights activist] strolling through Watts in a Red, Black and Green liberation jumpsuit that he had been saving for just the proper occasion. Gil Scott-Heron Green Acres, The Beverly Hillbillies, and

Hooterville Junction will no longer be so damned relevant, and women will not care if Dick finally gets down with Jane on Search for Tomorrow because Black people will be in the street looking for a brighter day. The revolution will not be televised.

Gil Scott-Heron There will be no highlights on the eleven o'clock news and no pictures of hairy armed women liberationists and Jackie Onassis [JFKs widow] blowing her nose. The theme song will not be written by Jim Webb or Francis Scott Key, nor sung by Glen Campbell, Tom Jones, Johnny Cash, Englebert Humperdink, or the Rare Earth [white

musicians]. Gil Scott-Heron The revolution will not be right back after a message about a white tornado, white lightning, or white people. You will not have to worry about the dove in your bedroom, the tiger in your tank, or the giant in your toilet bowl.

The revolution will not go better with Coke. The revolution will not fight the germs that may cause bad breath. The revolution will put you in the driver's seat. Gil Scott-Heron The revolution will not be televised, will not be televised, will not be televised,

will not be televised. The revolution will be no re-run brothers; The revolution will be live. Nation of Islam Malcolm X Black Nationalism Break with Nation

of Islam, 1964 Kennedy assassination comments Muhammads illegitimate children The Ballot or the Bullet audio

Malcolm X Hajj & conversion to orthodox Islam, 1964 New message March Against Fear, 1966 James Meredith

Solitary march from Memphis, TN to Jackson, Mississippi Wounded by sniper March was continued by others, including Stokely Carmichael March Against Fear, 1966

Stokely Carmichael Black Power We are oppressed because we are black. And in order to get out of that oppression [we] must wield

group power Text & audio of speech Black Panther Party, 1966 Bobby Seale & Huey Newton Oakland, CA

Black Panther Party, 1966 Back to Court Loving v. Virginia, 1967 Court struck down antimiscegenation laws

Legalized interracial marriage Swann v. Charlotte-Meck B.O.E., 1971 Implementation of Brown decision

City-wide busing may be used to integrate schools Regents of Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, 1978 Challenged affirmative

action admission policy Split decision by the court Admitted Bakke Prohibited quotas Sanctioned affirmative action A Decade of

Assassinatio ns Medgar Evers, 1963 John F. Kennedy, 1963 LBJ Takes Office

Lee Harvey Oswald, 1963 Malcolm X, 1965 Martin Luther King, 1968 Robert F. Kennedy, 1968 The End of

an Era Contributions Civil Rights/ Integration Legislation Cooperation Black

Power/Black Nationalism Psychological Pressure on government & more moderate civil rights Southern Strategy & Law &

Order 1964 Election: South Goes Republican Nixons Electoral Victories 1968 Election 1972 Election

Gil Scott-Heron Winter in America + lyrics Inspiration Government Actions

Executive Branch FDR Executive order 8802 (govt contractors) Truman Committee on Civil Rights Executive order

9980 (federal employment) Executive order 9981 (armed forces) Legislative Branch Civil Rights

Act Voting Rights Act Judicial Branch Warren Court McLaurin v. Oklahoma B.O.R.

Sweatt v. Painter Brown v. B.O.E. Blowin in the Wind How many roads must a man walk down Before you call him a man? Yes, 'n' how many seas must a white dove sail

Before she sleeps in the sand? Yes, 'n' how many times must the cannon balls fly Before they're forever banned? The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind, The answer is blowin' in the wind. Blowin in the Wind

How many times must a man look up Before he can see the sky? Yes, 'n' how many ears must one man have Before he can hear people cry? Yes, 'n' how many deaths will it take till he knows That too many people have died? The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind,

The answer is blowin' in the wind. Blowin in the Wind How many years can a mountain exist Before it's washed to the sea? Yes, 'n' how many years can some people exist Before they're allowed to be free? Yes, 'n' how many times can a man turn his

head, Pretending he just doesn't see? The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind, The answer is blowin' in the wind. Civil Rights vs.

Black Nationalism Religious Beliefs Political Beliefs: Integration & Civil Rights Religious Beliefs

Political Beliefs: Black Nationalism Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm X Common Beliefs

Your Opinion Your Opinion

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