The Classical Era

The Classical Era

THE CLASSICAL ERA Chapter 6-Mastering the TEKS in World History Chapter 5-World History Book TH E PER SIAN EMPIR E (2000B.C.100B.C.) BUILDING AN EMPIRE The Medes and the Persians lived in the Middle

East on the Iranian Plateau between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Cyrus the Great united these 2 peoples in 550 B.C. Expanded Persias territory westward by conquering Lydia and Babylonia and eastward by conquering territories as far as the Indus River BUILDING AN EMPIRE

The son of Cyrus the Great, Darius, unified the Persian Empire by: Building public roads Introducing a uniform set of weights and measures Establishing several capital cities RELIGION At first Persians were polytheistic 570 B.C. a new religion was introduced into the region

by the religious leader Zoroaster Zoroastrianism *Only 2 Gods-God of truth, light, and goodness and God of darkness and evil. *The whole universe was the battleground between these 2 forces. P E R S I A S A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S

Learned the practice of using coins. Moved from bartering to a money economy. Improved trade throughout the empire. Built hundreds of miles of roads using gravel and stone. Persian Royal Road was 1,500 miles long with more than 100 stations holding fresh horses. Darius established a postal service to make communication easier. Couriers carried letters over the new roads. THE G LORY OF G R EECE Civilizations gradually spread from

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia to other places in the Mediterranean region, including Phoenicia, Israel, and Greece. THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE Ancient Greece consisted of a large mountainous peninsula, the islands of the Aegean Sea, and the coast of present-day Turkey. Hilly terrain makes farming quite difficult.

Much of Greece is stony and suitable only for pasture. People have come to rely on trade. THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE Greeks produce: Wine Olive oil Pottery Greeks were exposed to key achievements of other ancient civilizations, such as the

alphabet, invented by the Phoenicians. * Minoans were skilled at shipbuilding. THE RISE OF GREEK CITY-STATES Mountains and the seas caused Greek centers of population to be cut off from one another. As a result, city-states developed, each with its own form of government and system of laws. In Greek, the word for city-state is polis. Common Culture-based on their language, religious beliefs,

traditions, and close economic ties. All Greeks believed in the same gods and goddesses, including Zeus, Athena, and Apollo, who were believed to live on Mount Olympus. T H E R I S E O F G R E E K C I T YS TAT E S The siege of Troy still thrill us today. Citizens from all of Greek city-states participated every four years in Olympic games in honor of Zeus and the other Greek gods.

Ancient Greeks were monotheistic or polytheistic? Polytheistic MILITARY SPARTA THE most important city-state was SPARTA!!!!!! 725 B.C. they conquered their neighbors and forced them to farm for them. Life was organized around military needs. Individualism and new ideas were discouraged. Strict obedience and self-discipline were high valued. For example: if a baby

was found unhealthy, it was left on a hillside to die. DEMOCRATIC ATHENS Unique system of government. Every citizen can participate in government by voting directly on issues. Main governing body was the Citizens Assembly. First 5,000 people could attend these meetings that assembled 10 times a year. Democracy-ordinary citizens participate in government, either directly or by elected representatives. Democracy means rule of the people in Greek.

Women, foreigners, and slaves were not considered citizens and could not participate in government. T H E G O L DE N A G E O F G R E E K C ULT UR E 5th Century B.C., the Persian Empire tried to conquer the Greek city-states. FAILED! After the war the Greeks enjoyed a Golden Age. Pericles championed democracy. He collected revenues from other city-states and rebuilt Athens.

Art, literature, and philosophy flourished. THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREEK C U LT U R E PHILOSOPHY: Greeks believed that human reasoning was powerful enough to understand the world and to solve its problems. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle asked

important questions on and tried to find answers. What is goodness? What is morality and justice? THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREEK C U LT U R E PHILOSOPHY (continued) Socrates enemies persuaded the Athenian Council to condemn Socrates to death for corrupting the young.

Plato took Socrates method of questioning a step further. He concluded that values like goodness, beauty, and justice actually exist as individual ideas that are more real than the changing appearances we see in daily life. Plato describes an ideal city-state ruled by philosopher kings in his book called The Republic. His most famous student was Aristotle. Aristotle collected and classified things from animals to city-state constitutions, and studied their relationships.

GOLDEN AGE Aristotle Socrates Plato GOLDEN AGE Art and Achitecture Greek Buildings and statues were brightly painted

with bold colors. The Parthenon, a splendid marble temple with beautiful columns: GOLDEN AGE Science and Mathematics Geographers like Eratosthenes showed the Earth was round and calculated its circumference. He also created a device (sieve) for discovering all prime numbers up to any limit.

Archimedes is considered of the greatest mathematicians of antiquity. Contributions to Geometry revolutionized the subject. Practical man who studied: *levers and pullies *measured volume & density *designed catapults *invented large screwlike device inside a cylinder to pump water

GOLDEN AGE Music and Literature: Greeks listened to choral music and instruments like the stringed lyre and flute, and developed musical scales. Greek playwriters Sophocles, completed the first known comedies and tragedies. Greeks

watched these plays in giant openair amphitheaters. P E L O P O N N E S I A N WA R S (432 B.C.-404 B.C.) Sparta vs. Athens Sparta finally declared war on Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars. After 30 years of fighting, Sparta emerged as the victor.

Greatly weakened the city-states. Economic costs were considerable Poverty widespread Athens was completely devestated Sparta emerged as the leading citystate. WOMEN IN ANCIENT GREECE Women were regarded as inferior and excluded them from public life. Managed the home, subject to their husbands will.

Spartan women enjoyed greater status than elsewhere in Greece. Education and Physical Training Could own clothing and slaves but not own land or enter into contracts. ALEXANDER THE GREAT 338 B.C., the King of Macedonia brought all Greek city-states under his control. His son Alexander the

Great, was taught by Aristotle. ALEXANDER THE GREAT Conquered most of the Mediterranean world, including Egypt and Persia, and as far as the Indus River Valley. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Hellenistic Culture: Fusion of Greek Culture with cultures of the Middle East and India. Wherever he went he spread Greek Culture. THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Vocabulary: Patricians Pleabeians Republic

Senate Consuls Tribunes THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Most influential civilizations emerges in the ancient world of Rome. Romans were heirs to Greek culture: Believed in same Gods and Goddesses as

the Greeks Gave them Lain (Roman) names. Studied and imitated Greek achievements in science, art, history and literature. THE ROMAN REPUBLIC The Twelve Tables: Nobody was above the law, plebeians nor politicians. Covered civil, criminal, and religious

law. Contributed to the importance of a CONTRACT-private agreement can be enforced by the government. R O M E E X PA N D S T O AN EMPIRE 275 B.C., Rome already ruled the entire Italian peninsula. Rome defeated its main trading rival,

Carthage, located just across the Mediterranean in North Africa. Victory made Rome the leading power in the Mediterranean. Rome next acquired territories in Spain, North Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean. Roman Generals like Julius Ceasar completed the conquests of Spain and

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