The Chemistry of Life - Explore Biology

The Chemistry of Life - Explore Biology

The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat? Regents Biology 2006-2007 Elements of Life 96% of living organisms is

made of: carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) nitrogen (N) Regents Biology Molecules of Life

Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms What are bodies made of? carbohydrates sugars & starches proteins fats (lipids) nucleic acids

DNA, RNA Regents Biology Why do we eat? We eat to take in more of these chemicals Food for building materials to make more of us (cells) for growth for repair

Food to make energy calories to make ATP Regents Biology ATP What do we need to eat? Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy for building & running bodies

carbohydrates proteins fats nucleic acids vitamins minerals, salts water Regents Biology Dont forget water Water

65% of your body is H2O water is inorganic doesnt contain carbon Rest of you is made of carbon molecules organic molecules carbohydrates proteins

fats nucleic acids Regents Biology How do we make these molecules? We build them! Regents Biology 2006-2007 Building large molecules of life

Chain together smaller molecules building block molecules = monomers Big molecules built from little molecules polymers Regents Biology Building large organic molecules Small molecules = building blocks

Bond them together = polymers Regents Biology Building important polymers Carbohydrates = built from sugars sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar Proteins = built from amino acids amino amino amino amino amino amino acid acid acid acid acid acid Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides

nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide Regents Biology How to build large molecules Synthesis building bigger molecules from smaller molecules building cells & bodies repair growth reproduction

+ ATP Regents Biology How to take large molecules apart Digestion taking big molecules apart getting raw materials for synthesis & growth

making energy (ATP) for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP Regents Biology Example of digestion ATP ATP ATP

starch ATP ATP ATP glucose ATP Starch is digested to glucose Regents Biology Example of synthesis

amino acids protein Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids Regents Biology amino acids = building block protein = polymer Any Questions?

Penguins gone bad! Regents Biology Old Food Pyramid Regents Biology New Food Pyramid Regents Biology

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