The Age of Reason and Revival RISE OF THE MODERN WESTERN WORLD Age of Enlightenment Delimitations: Began: 1687 Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Ended: 1789 French Revolution Descriptions: Less a set of ideas than it was a set of attitudes
A critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals Intellectual movement advocating reason as primary basis of authority Keynotes of Enlightenment Era: Governmental consolidation, nation-creation, greater rights for common people Decline in influence of authoritarian institutions such as nobility / church Focus on science: natural philosophy was making astounding advances Enlightenment Motifs 1. Reason 2.
Autonomy 3. Nature 4. Tolerance 5. Optimism 6. Humanism Post-Reformation Transitions in European Governance Devastation from religious wars France inherited bulk of political power on continent
Austria the new political power in Eastern Europe Ottoman empire repressed at Battle of Vienna England: leading hub of liberalism Guy Fawkes Rebellion and Catholic intolerance Netherlands: leading hub of tolerance/commerce Post-Reformation Transitions in European Governance Expanding power/influence of middle class
Period of political polarization Trends toward democracy vs. trends toward centralization of power England: monarchs appealed to divine right theory Consensus politics prevailed (Glorious Revolution of William & Mary in 1688) France: Louis XIV (Sun King) Held supreme power Revoked Edict of Nantes The Age of Reason and Revival CHANGING PHILOSOPHIES in the MODERN WORLD
Rise of Rationalism: The Veneration of Reason Genesis of new ideology Exhaustion from Medieval approaches to religion Cartesian Philosophy: Ren Descartes Cogito, ergo sum Cartesian philosophy as ally of Christianity Leibniz: truth uncovered by reason alone Rationalism as means of reconciliation The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion 1.
Socinianism / Unitarianism Reasonable denial of Trinity Held to authority of Scripture, but felt some nonrational doctrines were unbiblical Faustus Socinus Father of Unitarianism Racovian Catechism of Polish Brethren Intellectual rationalists in England John Biddle, Isaac Newton, Joseph Priestly Theophilus Lindsey: first Unitarian Church The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion 2.
Deism Elite English/French version of rationalistic religion True religion was more basic/fundamental than squabbles over orthodoxy All men given reason, and true/common religion afforded to all and reasonable Reject teachings of Bible if unreasonable A watchmaker God [William Paley] Opposed religious dogmatism and the opposite, apathetic religious skepticism Empirical, tolerant and reasonable
The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion Famous English advocates of Deism John Toland: Christianity Not Mysterious Matthew Tindal: Christianity as Old as Creation The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion 3. Latitudinarianism 17th c. Anglicans who were gentlemen of a wide swallow High regard for authority of reason and tolerant, antidogmatic temper
Reacted against the Calvinism of the Puritans and were broadly Arminian in outlook Supported scientific developments John Locke (d. 1704): British empiricist Essay Concerning Human Understanding The Reasonableness of Christianity The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion Allowed only a narrow core of fundamentals in religion Held "true philosophy can never hurt sound divinity
Theologically vague / spiritually insubstantial / strongly moralistic Foreshadowed skepticism of Hume Precursors of the Broad Churchmen of the 19th century The Risk of Rationalism/Reason in the Court of Religion 4. Philosophes French rationalist / materialist intellectuals Hostile deists replacing Christianity with more reasonable religion The great name of Deist, which is not sufficiently revered, is the only name one ought to take. The only gospel one ought to read is the great book of Nature, written by the hand of God and sealed with his seal. The only religion that ought to be professed is the religion of worshiping God and being a good man. [Voltaire]
Voltaire: Leading voice denouncing RC church Candide: satire attacking war, religious persecution, unwarranted optimism Philosophical Dictionary: humorously pointed out inconsistencies in Bible narratives and immoral acts of biblical heroes Cultural influences of philosophes 1. 2. 3. The Encyclopedia Attack on established religion The focus on human relationships / social laws 4. Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments
Physiocrats: philosophes on economic policy Adam Smith 5. laissez-faire economics Political opinions 6. Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Social Contract Enlightened absolutism
Prussia: Frederick II Austria: Joseph II Russia: Catherine II Portugal: Pombal The Age of Reason and Revival ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS SPREAD BEYOND EUROPE The Tolerant Church in Canada Product of political necessity rather than Enlightenment ideals British crown forced (pragmatism not idealism) to provide level of religious liberty to large Catholic population Roots of tolerance in Canadian churches Enlightenment Ideals in America
Deism embraced by revolutionary figures Jefferson Pamphlets/books rocked American orthodox religion Political Religious tolerance for VA / Jefferson Bible Thomas Paine leaders influenced by French deists Thomas Jefferson / Franklin / Allen / Palmer / Paine Common Sense / The Age of Reason
Enlightenment thought: Catalyst for education Harvard (1636) & Yale (1701) Russian Enlightenment Tsar Alexis assistance to Ukraine draws Russian church into western influence Ukrainian Catholic Church imports Enlightenment ideals into Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Nikon and the Old Believers Attempted reform of church to restore Greek (not western) ways
Peter the Great: Russia pressed into modern age Built St. Petersburg on Baltic Sea Replaced patriarch with holy synod Catherine the Great Model of enlightened absolutism System of schools for enlightened religious teachings The Age of Reason and Revival ROOTS OF RELIGIOUS RENEWAL AND VITALITY A Unique Marriage of Faith & Reason
Reason as viable route to vital piety Where head and heart go hand in hand The studious vital piety of the 17th-18th century Philosophers, Spiritualists, Pietists and Revivalists Emergence of New Theologies in Line With Reason The Cambridge Platonists Informal group of moralistic Cambridge dons Non-extreme (moderating) theology Reason as the proper judge of all disagreements
Mystical understanding of reason as imprint of God The Neologians Liberal theologians of Germany Aim of religion reduced to production of human virtue Targeted elimination of medieval Lutheran doctrines New Catholic SpiritualityQuietism in France Total passivity before God All activism of body or soul to be set aside Visible signs of church as well
Madame Guyon Emphasizing contemplation and visions A Short and Simple Means of Prayer Francois Fnelon Main advocate of Quietism Became social model of compassion German Pietism Reaction to scholastic Lutheranism
German tradition of mysticism Luthers German Theology Johann Arndts True Christianity Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705) The Father of Pietism Conventicles (collegia pietatis / ecclesiolae in ecclesia) Pia desideria (Holy Desires) August Hermann Francke (1663-1727)
Educational reformist at Halle Pietistic social action type of ministry German Pietism Impact of German Pietism 1. Negative reaction among some who felt it was too subjective, emotional 2. Birth of Protestant Missions Danish-Halle Mission 3. Infiltrated German Reformed Churches 4.
Spiritual legacy of fostering vital piety New hymn-writing (Tersteegen) The Moravians Origins: Legacy of Unitas Fratrum Refugees led by Christian David at Berthelsdorf Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf Pietist upbringing at Franckes Halle school Conversion Johann via Ecce Homo (by Domenico Feti) Rothe as pastor in Berthelsdorf
Hutberg (Watch Hill) or Herrnhut (The Lords Watch) Ministry of Herrnhut Community Holy Spirit Revival of 1727 Missionary vision as body of soldiers for Christ Community emphases as form of Protestant monasticism Missionary emphasis leavened European Protestantism Strong links to British evangelical revival Circle of Hussite/Moravian influence completed by Wesley
Moravians 3-fold influence on Wesley Visit to Herrnhut for ideas The Age of Reason and Revival THE GREAT AWAKENING IN AMERICA Nation Ripe for Religious Revival Reasons for the decline in vital religion Development Puritan ideal society ruled by God collapsed Spreading of commerce
rationalism and cultural confusion Clerical concern for situation was mounting Increase in the use of jeremiad Earthquake in 1727 Early Indications of Awakening Dutch Reformed: Frelinghuysen Raritan Valley, NJ revival Presbyterian: Tennents
William Tennent Sr. Log College Gilbert Tennent On the Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry Old Lights vs. New Lights Congregationalism: Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Old Light resistance led by Charles Chauncy Rise of Arminianism and Unitarianism The Awakening Takes Hold: Whitefield Colonial Tour (1739-40)
Came on wave of popularity in English Revivals Gilbert Tennent retains Whitefield Six week tour of revival Reason congregations are so dead is because dead men preach to them. Consequences of Awakening New emphasis on evangelism Denominational barriers diminished
Mission enterprises expanded (e.g. Brainerd) Church growth / expansion Higher Education expanded Dartmouth / Univ. of PA / Princeton / Rutgers / Brown Univ. Enlarged appreciation of religious / political liberty United colonies along entire seaboard The Age of Reason and Revival BRITISH REVIVALS of the 18TH CENTURY Scotland: Ebenezer & Ralph Erskine
Ebenezer preached in fields outside his church to accommodate crowds The Marrow of Modern Divinity Formed independent presbytery (Seceders) Whitefield tours promoted revival fires Wales: Simultaneous Revivals Griffith Jones Morning Star of the Methodist Revival
Howell Harris Lay minister Evangelized north Wales New House at Trevecca (Welsh Calvinist Methodists) Daniel Rowland The Welsh John Wesley Worked with Howell Harris in Welsh Revival England: Multiple Awakening Forces
Launching Point: Fetter Lane Society John Wesley emerges as key leader Love feast with Holy Spirit outpouring Methodism was to Anglicanism what Pietism was to Lutheranism Three distinct but related strands 1. Anglican Evangelicals 2. Calvinist Methodists 3. Operating within parish setting
Whitfield / Countess of Huntingdon Methodist Societies John and Charles Wesley Evangelical Revival Within Church of England Cradled in Cornwall area Moderate Calvinistic form of Methodism Significant figures William Grimshaw: Pioneer of loose-knit group Henry Venn: Famous evangelical missiologist working in North
John Newton Slave-trading shipmaster turned preacher and hymn-writer Curate of Olney (published Olney Hymns hymnbook) Friend William Cowper was great English poet contributor Augustus Toplady Famous evangelical hymn-writer George Whitfield: Calvinistic Methodists Revival
Biography Oxford Holy Club Persuader, not administrator Peak Period Split time Britain & America 14 visits to Scotland / Frequented Wales 7 trips to America (1739-40 Great Awakening Tour) Association with Wesleys Invited John to join in open air preaching at Bristol Parted over Calvinistic doctrines Association with Countess of Huntingdon Calvinist Methodist Connexion
Polemics with John Wesley and John Fletcher Checks Against Antinomianism and Further Checks Charles Wesley (1709-1788) Sweet Singer of Methodism Always in shadow of Johns efforts Lacked his iron constitution and even temperament for hard ministry Most gifted English hymn-writer Methodist Hymn Book of 1780 A little body of experimental and practical divinity
John Wesley: A Burning Heart Itinerant Preacher / Teacher Adaptation of means to circumstances Unequaled Evangelist Popular effectiveness earnest, practical, biblical, fearless Remarkable Appealed responses to his bold expositions to working classes John Wesley: A Burning Heart Writer: Balance of scholarship & piety
Letters, books, notes on Bible, sermons Journal / 52 Standard Sermons / Plain Account Virtually Edited invented the religious tract the Christian Library Pioneered idea of a monthly magazine John Wesley: A Burning Heart Social Activist Clinical Officer: opened a medical dispensary and treated for free
Loan Officer: operating credit unions for poor urbanites Labor Supporter: defended rights of coal miners and others in sweat shops Abolitionist: Prison pressed for an end to slave trade reformer: urged better conditions John Wesley: A Burning Heart Tireless servant Active life for all 88 years Began
every day at 4 AM Spent 2-4 hours in study every day Pastoral implementation of holiness message Traveled over 250,000 miles on horseback Preached Wrote 42,000 sermons over 200 books Organized most powerful movement in England Key Contributions of English Methodist Revival 1.
Spiritual enrichment 2. Christian agencies multiplied 3. Passion for social justice 4. Evangelical Hymnody 5. Isaac Watts inspired man-made hymns August Toplady / John Newton / William Cowper
Wesley Brothers The Collection of Psalms and Hymns / The Collection Charles Wesley wrote over 6000 hymns Concept of evangelical holiness as a social holiness Resources Drawn From Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, Third Edition, Revised and Expanded. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. Dowley, Tim, ed. The History of Christianity: A Lion Handbook. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1990. Gonzalez, Justo. The Story of Christianity Vol. 2: Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper, 1985.
Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006. Kagan, Donald, S. Ozment and F. Turner, eds. The Western Heritage. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1987. Miller, Glenn T. The Modern Church. Nashville: Abingdon Press: 1997. Needham, N.R. 2,000 Years of Christs Power Pt. 3: Renaissance and Reformation. London: Grace Publications Trust, 2004. Noll, Mark . Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. Leicester, England: IVP, 1997. Walker, Williston A History of the Christian Church. New York: Charles Scribners
Sons, 1985. Photo Sources Christian History & Biography Magazine http://www.christianitytoday.com/history Wikipedia http://www.wikipedia.org/
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