Technological Impacts

Technological Impacts

REVIEW SEMESTER 1 EXAM Topics Covered 1. Unit 1: General Conditions 1) FOT Review 2) Impacts of Technology 3) Problem Solving 4) Metrology 2. Unit 2: Communication Technology 1) History of Communication Technology 2) Types of Communication Technology 3) Drawing and drawing types 1) Orthographics and Isometrics 2) AutoCAD and Google Sketchup 3. Unit 3: Fuels and Engines REVIEW REMINDER Title Blocks BPI-IOT

CLASSWORK 5 JAN 11 WETZEL, T. 3 IOT I1-19 POLY ENGINEERING FOT REVIEW FOT Review Engineering What is ENGINEERING? Systematic application of mathematic, scientific, and technical principles to yield a tangible end product that meets our needs or desires. What are the key words?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Systematic application Mathematic, Scientific, Technical Principles Tangible end product Needs or Desires IOT I1-2 POLY ENGINEERING FOT REVIEW Engineering What is Technology?

The application of knowledge, tools, and skills to solve problems and extend human capabilities Performs tasks by using an artifact that is not part of the human body An object made by humans for a specific purpose Engineering creates Technology IOT I1-2 POLY ENGINEERING 9 Core Technologies SOFTBEEMM Core Technologies

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Structural Optical Fluid Thermal Biotechnology Electrical Electronic Material Mechanical IOT

I1-6 Technology POLY ENGINEERING FOT REVIEW Technology as a System Components: Goals Humans develop technology to meet needs Each artifact meets more than one goal Inputs Resources that go into a system and are used by it Processes Design Process, Production Process, Mgt. Process Outputs Technological systems are designed to produce specific outputs. Manufactured products, constructed structures, communicated messages, transported people or goods. Feedback and Control Using information about the outputs to regulate the system.

IOT I1-3 POLY ENGINEERING FOT REVIEW System Components GOALS Control FEEDBACK INPUTS PROCESSE S OUTPUT S

GOALS IOT I1-3 POLY ENGINEERING 7 FOT REVIEW INPUTS PICTMEM Resources that go into technology: People planners, designers, builders, testers, administration, investors, etc. Information math, science, and technical principles, etc. Capital $ for employees, materials, marketing, etc. Time to plan, design, make, market, ship, etc.

Machines and tools manufacturing facilities, etc. Energy to design, construct, ship, etc. Materials natural, synthetic, composite IOT I1-3 POLY ENGINEERING Make Model / Prototype 1. Model Used to communicate design ideas and processes. May be a small, large, or full scale model. 2. Prototype A working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments. IOT Outcome: Tangible Object

I1-4 POLY ENGINEERING 8 on the Constraints Engineering Design Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (A constraint is a limit or restriction) Safety is the product safe to use/construct? Cost is it affordable? Reliability will it work consistently over time? Environmental Concerns does it harm the natural or

human environment negatively? Ergonomics how efficiently can the human body utilize it? Manufacturability can it be made? Quality Control does it meet customer requirements? Maintenance how easily can it be maintained or upheld? IOT SCREEMQuM I1-5 POLY ENGINEERING Assessing Technology 1. If Technology is The ability of humans to combine ingenuity and resources to meet needs and wants of people 2. Then Technology Assessment is The conscience that polices the possible impacts of

applying technology The analysis of technology should be based on facts and research rather than media hype or personal opinion. I1-7 IOT POLY ENGINEERING Design Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Define the Problem

Brainstorm, Research, Generate Ideas Explore Possibilities Develop a Design Proposal Make Model/Prototype Test and Evaluate Refine the Design Communicate the Solution IOT I1-5 POLY ENGINEERING 5 Impacts of Technology SPEEC 5 Main Areas Impacted by Technology: Social: How does it affect interdependent human relationships? Cultural: How does it affect the characteristic features of everyday existence?

Economic: How does it affect the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services? Political: How does it affect the government? Environmental: How does it affect both the human and natural environments? (aesthetics included here) IOT I1-9 POLY ENGINEERING Impacts of Technology 5 Main Areas Impacted by Technology: Social, Cultural, Economic, Political, Environmental Time Ranges: Initial Effects Intermediate Effects Long-term Effects

Historical Technological Impact Recommendation IOT I1-9 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES - DRAW A DIAGRAM - SOLVE ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS - MAKE A MODEL - CREATE A FLOWCHART - RUN A SIMULATION - TRIAL AND ERROR IOT I1-23 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #1 DIAGRAM SOLUTION:

1. Chicken crosses the river. 2. Boat returns to the other side. 3. Chicken feed crosses the river. 4. Chicken and boat returns to the other side. 5. Fox crosses the river. 6. Boat returns to the other side. 7. Chicken crosses the river. IOT I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #2 : A man lived one-fourth of his life as a boy in Baltimore, one-fifth of his life as a young man in Youngstown, one-third of his life as a man in Manitoba, and the last thirteen years of his life in Thurmont. How old was the man when he died? Write down your answer. IOT

I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #2 ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION: Define the unknowns: X = mans total age. X/4 = years as a boy X/5 = years as a youth X/3 = years Write an equation: X/4 + X/5 + X/3 + 13 asX a= man Solve the equation: 60X = 15X + 12X + 20X + 780 60X = 47X + 780 13X = 780 X = 60 years IOT

I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #3 : Given a stack of individual blocks as shown. How many more blocks are needed to fill the empty spaces and form a large cube? Write down your answer. IOT I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #3 MODEL SOLUTION: 9 blocks on level four 8 blocks on level three 6 blocks on level two 23 blocks were missing IOT

I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #4 : HOMEWORK Given a stack of individual blocks as shown. If all of the visible blocks were to disappear suddenly, how many blocks would remain? Write down your answer. IOT I1-10 POLY ENGINEERING DRILL A: BOWLING PINS - SOLUTION Ten bowling pins form a triangular arrangement. Move 3 pins so that the resulting triangle points in the opposite direction. IOT I1-11

POLY ENGINEERING DRILL B: CROSSING CLOCK HANDS - SOLUTION On a regular clock, how many times will the minute hand and hour hand cross each other between the hours of 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.? 1. Between 10:54 and 10:55 a.m. 2. At 12:00 noon 3. Between 1:05 and 1:06 p.m. IOT I1-11 POLY ENGINEERING PROBLEM #2 (AVERAGE SPEED): SOLUTION The traveled 25 mph forisone to reach the The train

return trip down the hill alsohour 25 miles. top of the hill. Average speed is equal to miles. total For Therefore, the total round-trip will be 50 distance divided byto total time.

miles by 1 the average speed be 50 mph25for the divided round-trip, hour is 25must mph.travel Therefore, theintrain the train 50 miles one traveled hour, but25 the miles to reachused the top of the

hillon in 1the hour. train already up that hour trip up the hill. Therefore, it is impossible for the train to average 50 mph for the trip. IOT I1-11 POLY ENGINEERING DRILL A: SHADOWS SOLUTION During the day, a 25 foot tall telephone pole casts a 10 foot shadow on the ground. At that same time, a tree casts a 25 foot shadow. How tall is the tree? This problem can be solved by setting up a ratio. (POLE) Height / Shadow = (TREE) Height / Shadow

25 ft / 10 ft = y / 25 ft 2.5 = yy / 25 ft 62.5 ft =y 25 IOT 10 25 I1-12 POLY ENGINEERING

HOMEWORK PROBLEM #1 : SPIDER & FLY Given: A spider and a fly are in a room whose dimensions are 25 feet wide by 15 feet deep by 8 feet high. The spider is on the CEILING and the fly is on the FLOOR. If one corner of the room represents the origin (0,0,0) of an x-y-z coordinate system, then the spider is located at (20,8,-11 ) and the fly is located at (5,0,-7 ). See the given diagram. Problem: What is the MINIMUM DISTANCE that the spider must travel to reach the fly? IOT I1-12 POLY ENGINEERING HOMEWORK PROBLEM #2 : SPIDER & FLY Given: A spider and a fly are in a room whose dimensions are 25 feet wide by 15 feet deep by 8 feet high. The spider is on the FLOOR and the fly is on the CEILING. If one corner of the room represents the origin (0,0,0) of an x-y-z coordinate system, then

the spider is located at (5,0,-7) and the fly is located at (20,8,-11 ). See the given diagram. Problem: What is the MINIMUM DISTANCE that the spider must travel to reach the fly? IOT I1-12 POLY ENGINEERING DRILL B: Orange & Blue Diagram Solution 100 Poly students: 75 said they were wearing orange, 95 said they were wearing blue, and 50 said they were wearing both blue and orange. 95 45 50 75 25

45 + 50 + 25 = 120 students, not 100, so there is something wrong with the survey. IOT I1-13 POLY ENGINEERING "METROLOGY is the science and art of measurement. Measurement is extracting information from nature or from devices people have engineered. It is also about the uncertainty in the extracted data, communicating it to other people in a standard way, and making them confident in our measurements by establishing traceable measurement systems. Copyright 1998-2006 Newton Metrology Ltd. You will now receive a 4-sided concise summary of the International System of Units (SI). Read and study this summary now, as it may help you to find some answers to the homework. IOT I1-17

POLY ENGINEERING STANDARD - An acknowledged measure of comparison for quantitative or qualitative value ACCURACY -the degree of closeness of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value PRECISION - the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements or values CALIBRATION - the process of establishing the relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure TRACEABILITY - an unbroken chain of comparisons relating an instrument's measurements to a known standard I1-20 IOT POLY ENGINEERING BASE UNIT A unit in a system of measurement that is defined, independent of other units, by means of a physical standard. Also known as fundamental unit.

DERIVED UNIT - A unit that is defined by simple combination of base units. ERROR - The difference between a computed or measured value and a true or theoretically correct value. PERCENTAGE OF ERROR - the percentage ratio of the error to the correct value of the measured parameter. UNCERTAINTY - The estimated amount or percentage by which an observed or calculated value may differ from the true value. I1-20 IOT POLY ENGINEERING meter, kilogram, second, Kelvin, etc. THE INTERNATIONAL SI SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT IS COMPRISED OF 7 FUNDAMENTAL (OR BASE) QUANTITIES. THE ENGLISH SYSTEM, USED IN THE UNITED STATES, HAS SIMILARITIES AND THERE ARE CONVERSION FACTORS

WHEN NECESSARY. foot, pound, second, Fahrenheit, etc. IOT I1-20 POLY ENGINEERING SUMMARY OF THE 7 FUNDAMENTAL SI UNITS: 1. LENGTH - meter 2. MASS - kilogram 3. TIME - second 4. ELECTRIC CURRENT

- ampere 5. THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE - Kelvin 6. AMOUNT OF MATTER - mole 7. LUMINOUS INTENSITY - candela IOT I1-20 POLY ENGINEERING Exponential Growth LINEAR GRAPH IOT I1-8 POLY ENGINEERING

Exponential Growth Curve IOT I1-8 POLY ENGINEERING First, you must locate the center of the circle by finding the midpoint of the given vertical line. Next, use your PROTRACTOR to divide the circle into 12 equal angles of 30 degrees each. IOT I1-19

POLY ENGINEERING First, you must locate the center of the circle by finding the midpoint of the given vertical line. Next, use your PROTRACTOR to divide the circle into 15 equal angles of 24 degrees each. This is similar to the previous problem, except for the size of the angles. IOT I1-19 POLY ENGINEERING First, use your ruler to measure the

dimensions of the rectangle. Next, use your ruler to divide the rectangle into thirdsI1-19 from top to bottom, and fourths from side to side. IOT POLY ENGINEERING TEMPERATURE CONVERSION DERIVATION This is the normal boiling temperature of water at sea level. 212 212 - 32 F 100 100 - 0 C

This line represents any temperature on the thermometer. F - 32 C-0 32 0 We can This is set the up normal a proportion: freezing temperature of water at sea level. F - 32 C-0 = 212 - 32 100 - 0 IOT

I1-22 We can now solve for either F or C. Lets do both! POLY ENGINEERING F - 32 212 - 32 F - 32 Cross Multiply 180 100(F 32) C-0 100 - 0 = C = =

100 180C 5(F 32) = 9C 5(F 32) = 9C 5(F 32) = C 9 This equation is used to solve for C when F is known. Divide by GCF (greatest common factor) 5(F 32) = 9C F 32 = 9C 5 F = 9C + 32 5 This equation is used toIOTsolve I1-22

for F when C is known. POLY ENGINEERING When answering this type of question SOURCE of communication to DESTINATION of communication The large orange # refers to the test review sheet Alarm Clock Telephone 1 IOT Thermostat T.V. Remote

2-1 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Inform Persuade Entertain Control Manage Educate GOALS SOURCE Control Input Transmitted INPUTS Communication

TECHNOLOGY FEEDBACK Process Encoder PROCESSE Transmitter S Receiver Decoder GOALS Storage Retrieval DESTINATION Output Received OUTPUT Communication

S 2 IOT 2-1 POLY ENGINEERING Telephone Communication One of the simplest devices in your house What part of this technology system is an example of Human to Machine communication? Input You speak into the microphone Processes

Encoder Transmitter Receiver Decoder Storage Retrieval Output Friend hears voice 4 IOT 2-1 Answering Wires Play Receiver Microphone

Button theMachine electrical friends friend converts earpiece gets friend energy home, sound isnt travels speaker energy presses home, from converts and of

play, your voice this hears phone, the machine intoelectrical your electrical viarecorded stores exchanges, energy energy your voice back communication to (encodes)

your to sound friends POLY ENGINEERING Telecommunications Communication Technology Television (1925) Greek: tele far, Latin: visio seeing 4 main parts (cathode ray tube) Electron gun fires 3 beams Steering coils move electron beam across screen Phosphorus screen has over 200,000 pixels Glass tube holds it all together Signals are broadcasted like radio signals 4 IOT

2-4 POLY ENGINEERING September 30, 2008 Match the statements with the correct term below: 1. A device that changes a message into a form that can be transmitted 2. A device that sends a signal (i.e., encoded message) 3. A device that acquires a signal (i.e., encoded message) 4. A device that changes a coded message into an understandable form 4 Decoder 3 Receiver 1 Encoder Data 2

Transmitter 5 IOT 2-2 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Match the statements with the correct term below: 1. 2. 3. 4. Unorganized facts Organized data Information applied to a task The sending and receiving of information

4 Communication 2 Information 3 Knowledge Storage 1 Data 5 IOT 2-2 POLY ENGINEERING Last Nights Homework - REVIEW

Radio: Encoder: Devices that convert sound and information into a modulated sine wave Pulse Modulation: turn the voltage (sine wave) on/off (Morse Code) PM Amplitude Modulation: vary the amplitude (peak-to-peak) voltage AM Frequency Modulation: vary the frequency (speed) 6 IOT FM 2-2 POLY ENGINEERING Classes of Communication Technology Print Graphic Communication

Visual, lingual messages that include printed media Photographic Communication Using photographs, slides, or motion pictures to communicate a message Telecommunications Communicating over a distance Technical Graphic Communication Specific information about a product or its parts Size and shape, how to install, adjust, operate, maintain, 7 or assemble a device IOT 2-4 POLY ENGINEERING Print Graphic Communication Communication Technology Major Processes: Relief

2. The plate is covered in ink Intaglio A modeled work that is raised (or lowered) from a flat background. By(in-tal-yo) 593 A.D., the by first in Cuneiform theprinting Sumerianspress ~6000was yearsinvented ago. China, and the first printedExcess newspaper was available Wood block printing3.~200

C.E.ink is removed from surface in Beijing in 700 type A.D.printing It was ~1040 a woodblock printing. And Movable C.E. (Gutenberg ~1450) the Diamond Sutra, the earliest known complete Intaglio (in-tal-yo) ~1430 woodblock printed book with illustrations was printed Rotary printing press ~1843 4. Paper placed on plate and in China in 868 A.D. And Chinese printer Bi Sheng compressed

Lithography (offset printing) ~1796 invented movable type in 1041 A.D. in China. The source and destination are not on raised surfaces Grease and water do not readily mix 5. Paper is removed and ink has been transferred 1. Depressions cut into Low Relief Cuneiform 8 IOT A chemical process printing plate High Relief

Most modern books and newspapers POLY ENGINEERING 2-4 Communication Technology Print Graphic Communication Screen Printing (~1000 C.E., China; 1907 England) Mainly billboards, package labels, fabric designs Uses a woven mesh (a screen) to support an ink blocking stencil. The stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. Electrostatic (1938 / 1960s) Photocopier, Laser Printer Opposite charges attract

Ink Jet (1980s) 8 IOT Use a series of nozzles to spray ink directly on paper 2-4 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Telecommunication Telecommunications Communicating over a distance Tele Greek, far off Communicare Latin, to share Rely on the principles of electricity and magnetism 2 types: Hardwired systems (telephone, cable, fiber-optic)

Broadcast systems (radio and t.v., mobile phones) Point-to-point: One transmitter and one receiver Broadcast: One powerful transmitter to numerous receivers10 IOT 2-4 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Telecommunications Smoke signals and drums Chains of beacons (Middle Ages) Navigation signals Enemy troops approaching

Homing pigeons Carrier pigeons used as early as 1150 in Baghdad Olympic victors, Greece; Stock options, Europe Optical telegraph (semaphore, 1792, France) Towers with pivoting shutters Information encoded by the position of the 10 mechanical elements IOT 2-4 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Telecommunications Telegraph (mid 1830s) First instrument used to send messages by means of wires and electric current

A device interrupts the flow of a current through a wire Uses shorter and longer bursts of current to represent letters Device at receiving end converted electrical signal into clicks Operator/mechanical printer converted clicks into words Telegram wires over land Cable wires under water Telephone (1876 Bell and Gray) Greek: tele far, phone sound 10 IOT 2-4 POLY ENGINEERING 2 MULTI-VIEW

TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW Orthographic Projections: Ortho: straight or at right angles Graphic: written down Pro: forward Jacere: to throw To throw straight forward and write down The method of representing the exact form of an object in 2 or more views on planes (usually at right angles to each other) 14 IOT 2-9 POLY ENGINEERING 2

TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW MULTI-VIEW 14 IOT 2-9 How are orthographic projections drawn? POLY ENGINEERING 2 TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW MULTI-VIEW Reference Planes: Frontal Reference Plane Front View Horizontal Reference Plane

Top View Profile Reference Plane Side View 13 IOT 2-9 POLY ENGINEERING 2 SECTIONAL VIEWS TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW Sectional Views How an object looks if a cut were made through it perpendicular to the direction of sight. For example, if we cut the shape below at PRP 2 and drew the shape (including its insides) we would have a sectional view:

13 IOT 2-9 POLY ENGINEERING 2 SECTIONAL VIEWS Sectional Views TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW Different materials have different sectional views 14 IOT 2-9 POLY ENGINEERING

Communication Technology October 10, 2008 DRILL If point A is 2-3 away from the FRP in the right view, point A will ALWAYS be 2-3 away from the FRP. A 13 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 2 AUXILIARY VIEWS The ARP shows

trueReference form (shapePlane? and size) for inclines Which TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW HRP Auxiliary Reference Plane ARP PRP FRP 13/17 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 2

TYPE 2: MULTI-VIEW SURFACE DEVELOPMENTS 14 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 3 TYPE 3: PICTORIAL ISOMETRIC From Greek: Equal Measure Isos: Equal Metron: Measure The scale along each axis of the projection is the same True form parallel lines are shown as parallel (note colors below)

All isometrics: simple construction Isometric Cube: 1) all lines equal length; 2) all faces equal area; 3) perimeter is a hexagon 14 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 3 TYPE 3: PICTORIAL PERSPECTIVE Latin: perspicere to see through An approximate representation of an image as it is perceived by the eye. The most characteristic feature of perspectives is that

objects are drawn: Smaller as their distance from the observer increases 14 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 3 OBLIQUE TYPE 3: PICTORIAL A way of showing depth, like isometric Part orthographic / part isometric: One face is true form Parallel lines behind; either: Full scale

Half scale Three-quarter scale 14 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 3 TYPE 3: PICTORIAL EXPLODED ASSEMBLY Take an object and separate into individual parts Usually employed in instruction manuals Typically drawn in parallel projection (notice there is no perspective in the examples below) 14 IOT

2-10 POLY ENGINEERING 3 TYPE 3: PICTORIAL CUT-AWAY PICTORIAL Show the interior details of a product Often employed in instruction manuals Assists in understanding operation of product 14 IOT 2-10 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology

October 13, 2008 DRILL Turn in your 3-view assignment (include NAME) Match the type of Technical Graphics below with its type: B C A D Isometric Section Standard View Development Perspective Oblique A Cut-away Pictorial

E B C F G D E G F 14 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING

Technical Graphic Communication TECHNICAL GRAPHICS Which of the following images are parallel projections? 14 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication CLASS STANDARDS 1. Line Weights 2. Line Types 3. Dimensioning 4. Scales 15

IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication LINE WEIGHTS Four Weights in this class: Light: not noticeable from 2 (nearly invisible) Medium: just noticeable from 2 Heavy: obvious from 2 (final weight for most objects) Very Heavy: only used for borders 15 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING

LINE TYPES CLASS STANDARDS 1. Construction/Layout Lines LIGHT WEIGHT ALL lines begin as these DO NOT ERASE (unless there is a measuring error) 2. Guidelines LIGHT WEIGHT Used for LETTERING 15 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING LINE TYPES

CLASS STANDARDS 3. Object Lines: HEAVY WEIGHT The final line type for most objects 4. Hidden Lines: HEAVY WEIGHT Everything must be represented in each view, whether or not it can be seen Interior and exterior features are projected from view to view in the same way 15 Parts not seen on the exterior of a view are drawn 2-11 with hidden lines short DASHES IOT POLY ENGINEERING LINE TYPES

CLASS STANDARDS 5. Centerlines: MEDIUM WEIGHT Centers of symmetrical objects, including circles Used to locate views and dimensions 15 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING LINE TYPES CLASS STANDARDS 6. Extension Lines: MEDIUM WEIGHT Extend from objects

Used for dimensioning 7. Dimension Lines: MEDIUM WEIGHT Used for dimensioning Go between extension lines 15 IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING DIMENSIONING CLASS STANDARDS 2 things are needed to describe an object completely: Shape Size

Dimensioning: Size description Units are required Decimal or Fraction PREFERRED Dimensions read from bottom or right side Include: Extension line: begin 1/16 away from object and extend 1/16 beyond Dimension Line Dimension line: use arrowheads, guidelines, and LETTER IOT 2-11 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication QUIZ Slide 1 1. Write the correct name for each drawing type next to the correct letter on your paper.

A B E F D C G 14 IOT 2-17 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication

QUIZ Slide 4 4. Give an example of something a designer would scale up for drawing. 5. Give an example of something a designer would scale down for drawing. 6. If a point on an object is 14-3 away from the frontal reference plane in the front view and 7-6 away from the horizontal reference plane in the front view, how far away is the point from the frontal reference plane in the right side view? 7. To draw what type of drawing would designers19use more than one position for any reference plane? HORIZONTAL STARTING POINT 1. Add width of front view to width of right view (depth). 4.5 + 2 = 6.5 2. Add the space we will put between: 1.5 6.5 + 1.5 = 8 3. Subtract from the total width. 10 8 = 2 4. Divide by 2.

16 Horizontal Starting Point = 1 VERTICAL STARTING POINT 1. Add height of front view to height of top view (depth). 3 + 2 = 5 2. Add the space we will put between: 1.5 5 + 1.5 = 6.5 3. Subtract from the total height. 7.25 6.5 = .75 = 3/4 4. Divide by 2. 16 Vertical Starting Point = .375 = 3/8 Horizontal Starting Point = 1 Vertical Starting Point is 7/8 16

Thursdays Test You will be given the sheet below, including the border and title block. 1. 2. 3. Draw lettering guidelines 1/16 Complete title block Calculate starting point (vertical and horizontal) NO CALCULATOR ALLOWED IOT review POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication DRAWING ISOMETRICS Isometrics are drawn with:

All object vertical lines are vertical All object horizontal lines are drawn 30 degrees from the horizontal All lines are drawn true size 16 IOT 2-18 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication DRAWING ISOMETRICS One of the most effective ways to sketch an object pictorially is to sketch it in isometric. 1. Start by sketching an enclosing box (absolute height, width, depth) Construction Lines 2. Add in features 3. Darken all final lines

16 IOT 2-18 POLY ENGINEERING ISOMETRICS from ORTHOGRAPHICS Technical Graphic Communication Let each grid space = Front view is typically drawn first You must look at all views 16 IOT 2-18 POLY ENGINEERING

Technical Graphic Communication DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Describe an isometric view Prepare drawing paper Locate center of drawing space Plot starting point of drawing Complete isometric drawing 16 IOT 2-21 POLY ENGINEERING

Technical Graphic Communication DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 1. Describe an isometric view 1. Height 2. Width 3. Depth (of the front view) 16 IOT 2-21 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 2. Prepare drawing paper Construction Lines

3. Locate center of drawing space 45 degree triangle 16 Technical Graphic Communication DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 4. Plot starting point of drawing 1) W 2) D 3) H 30-60-90 triangle Starting Point 16 Technical Graphic Communication

DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 5. Complete isometric drawing Starting Point 16 IOT 2-21 POLY ENGINEERING Technical Graphic Communication DRAFTING ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 16 IOT 2-21

POLY ENGINEERING Thursdays Test You will be given the sheet below, including the border, title block, and isometric guidelines. 1. 2. 3. Draw lettering guidelines 1/16 Complete title block Calculate starting point 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. Draw X across drawing space Pick the nearest intersection

Measure down to right width Measure down to left depth Measure straight down height Each grid space = IOT review POLY ENGINEERING Absolute Coordinates Absolute coordinates are based on the origin (0,0), expressed as an ordered pair x,y. All other points are also expressed in the form x,y and the values of x and y are based on the distance from the origin. If we desire to draw a line, we must give the location of both endpoints, expressed as an ordered pair x,y where the origin is used as a reference point. 18

IOT 2-3 POLY ENGINEERING Communication Technology Introduction to AutoCAD Relative coordinates are not based on the origin (0,0). Instead, we use the @ symbol followed by an ordered pair x,y. This means starting where we are AT, go over (or back) x and up (or down) y. If we desire to draw a line using relative coordinates, we must give the location of the first endpoint (usually using Absolute coordinates), followed by @x,y for the second endpoint. 18 IOT 2-24 POLY ENGINEERING

Polar Coordinates Polar coordinates are used to draw lines at specific angles. When using Polar coordinates, angles are measured according to the following tradition: ISOMETRIC ANGLES 90 90 180 150 30 210 330 = -30 0

18 IOT 270 270 = -90 2-3 POLY ENGINEERING Polar Coordinates Polar coordinates are used to draw lines at specific angles. When using Polar coordinates, angles are measured according to the following tradition: 90 45 degrees 135 degrees 225 degrees = -135 degrees 180

0 315 degrees = -45 degrees 360 degrees = 0 degrees 18 IOT 270 2-26 POLY ENGINEERING

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    Univariate Ito's Lemma. Assume. ???=????+?????. ??,?? is twice differentiable of two real variables. We have. ???,??= ????+??????+??22?2???2??+?????????