Teaching Thinking A guide for the perplexed

Teaching Thinking A guide for the perplexed

-- Teaching Thinking A Guide for the Perplexed Yoram Harpaz Mandel Leadership Institute, Jerusalem [email protected] ?Why teach thinking The explosion of knowledge Knowledge is expanding Knowledge is accessible Knowledge is relative How teach thinking when... . There are an awful lot of theories around Robert Sternberg With so much controversy in the air, its understandable that only a few teachers and schools make the attempt. -- David Perkins Mind Workers Unite!

-- Arthur Costa Approaches to Teaching Thinking The Main Question: what is the foundational element of good thinking and how is it taught? Skills Approach Dispositions Approach Understanding Approach Some definitions Skills: means of thinking implemented rapidly and precisely (e.g. heuristics, tools, organizers). Neutral skills: means of thinking that render common cognitive processes more efficient (e.g. classifying, grading, comparing, deciding, etc.). Normative skills: means of thinking that create uncommon cognitive processes (e.g. breaking patterns, devising problems, exposing premises, discovering biases, etc.). Some definitions Disposition: intellectual trait that is conciously

chosen and justified. Thinking dispositions: traits with direct impact on thinking. Disposition to think: to engage and be engaged in thinking. Some definitions Understanding: locating knowledge in relevant and rich contexts and/or performance intellectual moves with knowledge. Substantive understanding: understanding the substance of thinking. Reflective understanding: understanding thinking or the conditions that make it good thinking. Patterns of teaching thinking Teaching: education through knowledge Skills Impartation Disposition Cultivation Understanding Construction The Approaches as Worldviews

Skills: Good Thinker is efficient thinker Dispositions: Good Thinker is wise thinker Understanding: Good Thinker is learned thinker The approaches as lenses Thinking Shortfalls Skills: faults (lack of thinking skills or their faulty application) Dispositions: weaknesses (character flaws or weak ego) Understanding: misunderstandings Metacognition Intelligence Transfer The Metaphorical Aspects The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another. (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) Skills: thinking as a toolbox Dispositions: thinking as deep currents

Understanding: thinking as a net The practical aspect: the approaches in school Skills standard deviation: taming Dispositions standard deviation: preaching Understandings standard deviation: lecturing Approaches The Skills The Characteristic Approach Dispositions s Approach The Understanding Approach Foundational element

Skills Dispositions Understanding Patterns of teaching Impartati on Cultivation Construction Ideologies: "the good thinker" Efficient thinker

Wise thinker Learned thinker Metaphors for Toolbox thinking Deep currents Net Standard deviation Taming Preaching Lecturing Examples Edward

De Bono, CoRT Arthur Costa, Habits of Mind David Perkins & Howard Gardner, Teaching for Understanding Two Essential Questions What to believe. 1 ?why three What to do. 2 ? which approach is best 1. Three elements of good thinking correspond to three components of thinking: Thinking skills

Processes of thinking Thinking disposition Qualities of thinking Understanding Contents of thinking 2. Teach skills and dispositions within the understanding approach and the pattern of construction. Approaches Characteristics Theories, programs, ideas examples The Skills Approach The Dispositions Approach

The Understanding Approach De Bono CoRT Ennis - Taxonomy of critical chinking Beyer - Direct teaching of thinking Perkins - Thinking frames Perkins & Swartz - Graphic organizers Swartz & Parks Infusion Sternberg Intelligence implied Treffinger, Isaksen & Dorval - Creative problem polving Johnson & Blair Informal logic Chaffee - thinking critically

Whimbey & Lochhead Problem solving Feuerstein. Instrumental Perkins Dispositions theory of thinking Tishman Thinking dispositions Costa - Habits of mind Baron Theory of rationality Langer Mindfulness Barrel Thoughtfulness Facione - Critical thinking dispositions Passmore Critical thinking as a character trait Siegel The spirit of the critical thinker Sternberg Successful

intelligence Golman - Perkins - Understanding performances Gardner - Understanding in the disciplines Wiske Teaching for understanding Wiggins & McTighe Understanding by design Paul - Critical thinking in the strong sense McPeck - The reflective critical thinker Brown Community of learners Smith - Understanding as good thinking Brooks & Brooks Constructivist instruction Lipman - Philosophy for children Harpaz & Lefstein - Community of thinking Approaches Characteristics

The Skills Approach The Dispositions Approach The Understanding Approach The foundational element of good thinking Skills: Thinking tools used efficiently - quickly and precisely - in given circumstances. Dispositions: Motivation for good thinking which is formed by reasonable choices. Understanding: The ability to locate a

concept in a context of other concepts, to implement concepts in new contexts and perform thinking processes with knowledge. Types of foundational elements Neutral skills; Normative skills Thinking dispositions; Disposition to think Substantive understanding; Reflective understanding Patterns of teaching The pattern of impartation

The pattern of cultivation The pattern of construction Ideologies: "the good thinker" Efficient thinker Wise thinker Learned thinker Typical Thinking shortfalls Faults Weaknesses Misunderstandings Meta-cognition

Metacognition is skill Metacognition is disposition Metacognition is understanding Intelligence Intelligence is constituted of skills Intelligence is constituted of dispositions Intelligence is constituted of understandings Attempt at reductionism Disposition and understanding are

included in skill Skill and understanding are included in disposition Skill and disposition are included in understanding Metaphors for thinking Toolbox Deep currents Net Standard deviation Taming Preaching

Lecturing Slogan Give the child a fishing rod! Give the child bait! Give the child knowledge of the fishing field!

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • MATLAB for Image Processing

    MATLAB for Image Processing

    The Image Processing Toolbox is a collection of functions that extend the capabilities of the MATLAB's numeric computing environment. The toolbox supports a wide range of image processing operations, including: Geometric operations Neighborhood and block operations Linear filtering and filter...
  • Reducing Chronic Absence: AnWhat overview of why matters

    Reducing Chronic Absence: AnWhat overview of why matters

    Missing 10% or more of school for any reason -- excused, unexcused, etc. It is an indication that a student is academically at risk due to missing too much school starting in Kindergarten. Unpacking attendance terms is critical because the...
  • Landform Regions

    Landform Regions

    The N.A. Plate and Pacific Plate are moving against one another Most active earthquake region Plates are moving at a rate of 2cm to 10cm per year Very popular tourist area To summarize… The movement of Earth's plates and the...
  • Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Related Interoperability

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Related Interoperability

    Basis for Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) standards. AP233 and AP239 Convergence. AP239ed2 contains all but 233's Issue and Behavior Models (State Machines and Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagrams) ... Like earlier work with CADM, IFC, SysML.
  • ECE 417, Lecture 10: Speech Perception

    ECE 417, Lecture 10: Speech Perception

    The first principal component, ?1, is the part of ?−? that's in the ?1 direction. It has a variance of ?1. The second principal component, ?2, is the part of ?−? that's in the ?2 direction. It has a variance...
  • The Martian Meteorite

    The Martian Meteorite

    METEO 466 Planetary Atmospheres December 2011 data release Candidate label Candidate size (RE) Number of candidates Earth-size Rp < 1.25 207 Super-Earths 1.25 < Rp < 2.0 680 Neptune-size 2.0 < Rp < 6.0 1181 Jupiter-size 6.0 < Rp <...
  • Executive Secretary Agenda Items November Plenary - Waikoloa

    Executive Secretary Agenda Items November Plenary - Waikoloa

    Request for information from 802 Plenary WG Attendees. We need to try to get an accurate count to prepare for the Breaks and Lunch on Friday. During your WG Opening Plenary, we need to determine how many will be staying...
  • Serious Reportable Events in 2015 Acute Care Hospitals,

    Serious Reportable Events in 2015 Acute Care Hospitals,

    SREs Defined. Section 51H of Chapter 111 of the General Laws:"Serious reportable event", an event that results in a serious adverse patient outcome that is clearly identifiable and measurable, reasonably preventable, and that meets any other criteria established by the...