M&V Part 3: FEMP M&V Methods FEMP M&V Methods Definition of Savings FEMP M&V Guidelines Examples & Applications 3-2 FEMP M&V Guidelines FEMP M&V Guidelines For federal energy projects Step-by-step procedural guide Defines M&V methods by project type Current version is 2.2 (2000) Available at http://www.eren.doe.gov/femp/, http://ateam.lbl.gov/mv/ or 1-800-DOE-EREC. 3-3
What the Guidelines Cover Agreement language. Overview of procedures. Different M&V approaches. Selecting the right approach for a project. 3-4 What the Guidelines Dont Cover Specifying an approach for a project. Specific M&V plan for each project. Required uncertainty levels. Specifying how to allocate risk between ESCO and agency. Project-specific O&M savings. 3-5 FEMP M&V Compliance Complying with the FEMP guidelines requires:
Developing an M&V plan using the defined methods. Following the M&V plan. The important consideration is what is in the plan. 3-6 FEMP M&V Options M&V Option How savings are calculated Option A: Based on measured equipment performance, measured or stipulated operational factors, and annual verification of potential to perform. Engineering calculations. Option B: Based on periodic or continuous
measurements taken throughout the term of the contract at the device or system level. Engineering calculations using measured data. Option C: Based on whole-building or facility Analysis of utility meter data. level utility meter or sub-metered data adjusted for weather and/or other factors. Option D: Based on computer simulation of building or process; simulation is calibrated with measured data. Comparing different models. 3-7 Options A&B vs. Options C&D Options A&B are retrofit isolation methods. Options C&D are whole-facility
methods. The difference is where the boundary lines are drawn. 3-8 Option A Option A Option B Option C Option D Simple approach (& low cost). Performance parameters are measured (before & after), usage parameters may be stipulated. Used where the potential to perform needs to be verified but accurate savings estimation is not necessary.
Option A is NOT stipulated savings! 3-9 Stipulate Option A Option B Option C Option D To stipulate is to agree to a term or condition. Under FEMP, to stipulate means to estimate without measurement. A parameter is either measured or stipulated, but not both. A measured parameter can be fixed for the contract term. 3-10 Option A Applications
Option A Option B Option C Option D Projects where performance remains constant,usage can be readily characterized, and uncertainty is not a major issue. Lighting efficiency. Timeclock controls. Efficient motors. Operations & Maintenance. 3-11 Option B Option A Option B Option C
Option D Under Option B, some or all parameters are measured periodically or continuously. Applicable where accurate savings estimation is necessary and where longterm performance needs to be tracked. Reduced uncertainty, but requires more effort. 3-12 Option B Applications Option A Option B Option C Option D Projects with large elements of uncertainty and/or risk ($$$).
Variable speed drives. Chillers and chiller plants. Energy management & control systems. Projects where equipment needs constant attention. 3-13 Option B Benefits Option A Option B Option C Option D Reasons to use Option B instead of A: Real M&V. Better equipment performance. Improved O&M. Continuous CommissioningSM Remote monitoring. Continuous Commissioning is a service mark of Texas A&M University.
3-14 Option C Option A Option B Option C Option D Option C looks at energy use and cost of entire facility, not at specific equipment. Usually simple. Considers weather, occupancy, etc. Applicable where total savings need to be quantified but component-level savings do not. Commercial software available. 3-15 Option C Limitations Option A
Option B Option C Option D Does not verify at component level. Requires savings to be significant (> 15% of baseline consumption). Requires historical data (> 1 year). May take time to evaluate savings. May require baseline adjustment to account for non-project related factors. 3-16 Option C Applications Option A Option B Option C
Option D Projects where facility usage remains constant and historical data is present. Weather-dependent projects. Heating projects. Energy management & control systems. Multiple interacting measures in a single building. 3-17 Option D Option A Option B Option C Option D Option D treats building as computer model. Flexible, but requires significant effort.
Applications: New construction. Energy management & control systems. Building use changes. Building modifications. 3-18 Option D Limitations Option A Option B Option C Option D Uses very specialized software that requires significant experience to use. Results vary with effort (and $$$) expended. Requires measurements for calibration. Weather-related usage often stipulated. Still need to verify potential to perform.
Annual inspections recommended. 3-19 Examples Option A Option B Option C Option D Option A: Lighting Option B: Variable-Speed Drive Option C: Heating Plant Option D: New Construction 3-20 Example Lighting Project Option A Option B
Option C Option D Consider the following lighting project: Upgrade 5,000 fixtures Existing performance: 86 Watts New performance: 56 Watts Operating hours: 3,000/year Electricity: $0.10/kWh 3-21 Method LE-A-01 / 02 Option A Option B Option C Option D Performance Baseline power consumption is 86 Watts.
Proposed power consumption is 56 Watts. Difference is 30 Watts. Usage Baseline & New: 3,000 hours / year Financial Energy = $0.10/kWh 3-22 Lighting Savings Option A Option B Option C Option D E Savings = QTY * (Before - After) * Hours ES = (5,000) * (86 W - 56 W) * (3,000 hours) * (1 kW / 1000 W) ES = 450,000 kWh / year Cost Savings = (Unit Cost) (Energy Savings) Cost Savings = (450,000 kWh) * ($0.10/kWh) Cost Savings = $45,000 / year
3-23 Example VSD Project Option A Option B Option C Option D Variable Speed Drive on HVAC Fan. Baseline Fan: Operates continuously at a single speed and power no matter what the cooling load is. VSD Fan: Speed and power change with cooling load (outside temperature). 3-24 VSD-B-01 Option A Option B
Option C Option D Fan Performance Baseline fan: Constant power (140 kW). VSD Fan: Power changes w/ weather. Fan Usage Fan power changes hourly with cooling load (outside temperature and sunshine). Financial Energy = $0.10 / kWh 3-25 Monitor Fan Performance Option A Option B Option C Option D
Variable Speed Drive Fan Power baseline fan power 120 VSD Fan kW savings 90 100 60 50 0 1-Jul-97 Baseline Post-retrofit Air Temperature 6-Jul-97
11-Jul-97 30 gap in data collection 16-Jul-97 21-Jul-97 26-Jul-97 Temperature, F 150 0 31-Jul-97 3-26 Calculate Monthly Savings Option A
E Savings = Option B Option C Option D (kWBefore - kWAfter) * (1 Hour) Cost Savings = (Unit Cost) (Energy Savings) Month July August September October November kWh Saved Cost Savings 27,592 $2,759 24,316 $2,432
26,870 $2,687 34,724 $3,472 40,858 $4,086 3-27 Example Heating Project Option A Option B Option C Option D Heating system upgrade at eastern US military base. Baseline: Gas-fired boilers with central steam plant provide heat to buildings. New System: Shut down steam plant. Install gas furnaces in all buildings.
3-28 Heating System Characteristics Option A Option B Option C Option D Base Performance Baseline: low-efficiency and steam loss. New: High efficiency, no steam loss. Energy Usage Driven by weather. Financial Gas is $0.50/therm. 3-29 Compare Gas Use to Temperature Option A Option B
Option C Option D Baseline Gas Use for Heating 40,000 1,200 Total Therms HDD 800 20,000 600 400 10,000 200 0
Oct-99 HDD base 65 Therms 30,000 1,000 0 Jan-00 Apr-00 Jul-00 Nov-00 Feb-01 3-30 Develop Baseline Model
Option A Option B Option C Option D Baseline Gas Use Model Monthly Therms 40,000 Therms = 25.6* HDD - 1,378 R2 = 0.742 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 0 200
400 600 800 Monthly HDD 1,000 1,200 3-31 Calculate Monthly Savings Option A Option B Option C Option D Baseline, therms = 25.6 * HDD - 1,378 Month January
February March April May June July August September October November December Total Weather, HDD Baseline, Therms New Use, Therms Energy
99,137 69,396 29,741 $14,871 3-32 Example New Construction Option A Option B Option C Option D Proposed building incorporates energy- efficient design features selected by ESCO. Baseline building is existing design
before ESCO modifications. 3-33 Develop Computer Model... Option A Option B Option C Option D 3-34 ...And Evaluate Results Option A Option B Option C Option D
3-35 Calculate Savings Option A Option B Option C Option D Evaluate energy use for each scenario. Calculate savings for each scenario relative to base case. Energy Use, kWh Alternative Lights Cooling Other
Total Savings Base Case 1,500,298 955,263 2,447,979 4,903,540 - Efficient Lighting 1,125,240 860,062 2,365,638
4,180,600 722,940 3-36 Review and Discussion Total energy use and savings are a function of both usage and savings. Options A & B are retrofit-isolation methods. Options C & D are whole-facility methods. Can mix & match methods. 3-37 Review Questions What two factors determine energy savings? How does one comply with the FEMP Guidelines?
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