Biomechanical correlates of exercise areas of interest, endeavor, & contribution Design/analysis of fitness programs Design of fitness exercises are exercises inherently safe and effective? Exercises to avoid (e.g., deep knee bends, good morning exercise)
movements, forces, injury potential Analysis of fitness exercises are exercises being executed properly? Design, selection, and analysis of fitness equipment resistive equipment (e.g., thesis on situp ex equip)
aerobic equipment Relative merits of exercise mode Running shoes Biomechanical aspects of aerobic exercise Adrian, p. 219
Potential for injury increases with body weight Airborne activities produce greater forces than non-airborne activities
Fast twisting movements of arm and upper trunk produce lower back reaction forces Stress is inversely proportional to body surface area exposed Joint shear stress is minimal if bones are aligned in a straight line Knee joint stress is minimized it knee is alighted above the foot Alignment of trunk above pelvis minimizes unbalanced stress of spine Keep limbs close to trunk for maximum equilibrium Longer limbs involve greater MOI, thus they are harder to move and accelerate
Joint reaction force increases with speed of angular movement The taller person needs more time to perform an activity Safety can be increased or decreased by modifying the intensity of the exercise Biomechanics of Resistive exercises Factors affecting force application
Force-velocity relationship Strength-joint position relationship (combination of angle of pull and force/length relationship) Should we provide the same
degree of overload throughout the movement? If so, how do we do it? Use of Cams in Ex Equipment: Pelvic Girdle Balance
Compression and shear forces: Spinal Flexion Exercises Effect of Anchoring feet?
Bending knees? Placement of hands and arms? Inclined board? Back Extension Exercises to Avoid: Good morning exercise:
Hyperextended back: Recommended Extension Exercise Effect of speed on effects of exercise: Torque = Wd + MOI x ang acc Effect of posture on
lumbar compression force: Torque while lifting: Recommendations: (1)bend knees and (2)keep weight close to hips
Knee Joint Structure: 25% of Alpine skiing injuries are ligament injuries Peripatellar pain
(runners knee) caused by imbalance of stress on patella Lower Extremity Misalignment:
Q angle is larger in females due to Wider hip structure, increasing potential for PFPS (Patellofemoral pain syndrome) Quadriceps Tendon and Patella
Force Lines Compressive force at PFJ is body wt during normal walking, and over 3 times bw during stair climbing Comp force increases as knee flexion Angle increases
Structure and tissues of shank and foot: Subtalar axis: Foot Pronation and Tibial Torsion:
Plantar Fascium: Plantar fascitis is 4th most common cause of pain among runners (1st knee pain, 2nd shin splints, 3rd- achilles tendonitis)
Arches of the Foot: GRF while Running
Force vectors on different parts of foot Rearfoot Movement During Running:
Types of running injuries Example of Double Density Midsole: Effects of Rearfoot Double Density Midsole
on rearfoot position: Effects of Rearfoot & Forefoot Double Density Midsole on takeoff angle:
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