Sociology Chapter 4

Sociology Chapter 4

Slide # 1 Which of the Following Is an Example of a Group? Cheerleaders at a school A high school football team People lined up to vote Women at a baby shower

Pedestrians at a crosswalk Slide # 2 Cheerleaders at a School Slide # 3 Football Team

Slide # 4 People Lined Up to Vote Slide # 5 Women at a Baby Shower Slide # 6

Pedestrians in a Crosswalk Slide # 7 Primary Groups Families, couples in

love, street gangs, social clubs Relationships that are face-to-face and personal Slide # 8 Four Features of a Primary Group

Continuous, face-toface interaction Strong ties Multifaceted Enduring Slide # 9 Secondary Groups

Organized around specific, impersonal goals Not as much interaction as in primary groups School classes, political parties,

sports teams Slide # 10 Secondary Group Characteristics Limited face-to-face interaction Modest or weak personal identity with the group

Weak ties of affection Limited/shallow relations Not very enduring Slide # 11 Why Join a Group ? To satisfy the need to belong

To compare experiences To use group standards to evaluate ourselves For companionship To lessen anxiety and provide comfort Group accomplishments Slide # 12 A Case Study How

many of the reasons for joining a group exist for the cheerleaders at San Luis Obispo Senior High School in California? Slide # 13 Satisfy Our Need to Belong

I joined the group so that we can entertain the students. I enjoy belonging to this group. Slide # 14

Allows Us to Accomplish Things We Could Not Do Alone Yes, we all work together and are able to impress the people we perform for.

Slide # 15 Use Group Standards for Evaluation Yes, definitely, to see how others are like me.

Slide # 16 Companionship We are like a family, a good team. I have a great deal of friends on the

cheer and dance team and I made a lot of new friends. Its a big plus when you get along with everyone. Slide # 17 Comparing Ourselves To Others

I had been dancing and performing my whole life and I wanted to see where I stood in a performing group. Slide # 18

Peer Groups A group of friends or associates of about the same age and social position Form cliques, clubs, gangs

Slide # 19 Reference Groups A group that serves as a standard for evaluating ones achievement,

behavior, or values Slide # 20 Group Dynamics The impact of group size

The dyad, or twoperson group The triad Multiples (division of labor) Slide # 21 The Triad Slide # 22

Leadership Groups need leaders for two reasons 1. To direct tasks 2. Maintain good spirits

Groupthink Slide # 23 Groupthink Emphasizes group decisions in large organizations

People working together will make better decisions than an individual Slide # 24 When Does Groupthink Occur? When

group members are unable to evaluate other available options Inability to comprehend negative consequences Slide # 25

Conditions for Groupthink The group is isolated from the outside There are time limits Not having an

impartial leader Slide # 26 Examples of Groupthink Pearl Harbor and FDR JFKS invasion of Cuba Nixons Watergate fiasco

Waco, Texas standoff Slide # 27 Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941 U.S. leaders decide not to take special measures to defend

Pearl Harbor, making it an easy target for the Japanese A date which will live in infamy Slide # 28 The Bay of Pigs Invasion An

inheritance from Ike The invasion plan JFKs response Slide # 29 Watergate: June 1972

Bungled burglary CREEP 29 people indicted or arrested

Slide # 30 I Am Not a Crook Slide # 31 Waco, Texas: 1993 Standoff between

federal agents and David Koresh The Attorney General had waited long enough Slide # 32 In-groups A

group with which a person identifies and feels that he or she belongs A greedy group Slide # 33 Characteristics

of In-groups 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sacrifice Investment

Renunciation Communication Mortification Transcendence Slide # 34 Out-groups A group with which a

person does not identify and does not feel that he or she belongs to Slide # 35 Gangs Slide # 36

Types Of Gangs Social gangs Delinquent gangs Violent gangs Slide # 37

Gang Locations L.A. is the gang capital of America Chicago, Seattle, Kansas City Importance of drugs Slide # 38

Public Housing Projects A breeding ground for gangs Family structure Trophies / graveyards Slide # 39

Ethnic/Gender Breakdowns In the 1950s, gang members tended to be white males Today four-fifths of gang members are African-American or Latino Women have now entered the ranks as well

Slide # 40 History of Gangs Born out of the chaos of inner city life (Zoot Suit riots) Gangs offer ultimate control Black gangs arose after the Watts riots in 1965

Slide # 41 Gang Divisions Gang divisions are called sets There are variations even within each set

Gangs and colors Slide # 42 Hand Symbols Hand signals are used as defiant gestures toward

other gangs Each gang has their own hand signals Slide # 43 Gangbanging Los Vatos

Locos/Latino gang of the 1970s Drugs of the 70s/PCP Slide # 44 Going Loc The

Boo-Yah Tribe Sawed-off shotguns New drugs: speed, crack-laced joints Slide # 45 Levels of Membership Slide # 46

Why Join a Gang? Power Identity A surrogate family Security Slide # 47

Women in Gangs Makeup The raccoon look Tattoos Clothes Pregnancy

Slide # 48 Gang Members in Prison When someone goes to prison in California, they get put into a car A gang members

ride in prison Slide # 49 Self-Help Groups Slide # 50 Causes Vary Phobias,

drunk driving, child rearing, addictions, cancer, hyperactivity, hospice Slide # 51

Ryan Slide # 52 Why Do People Join Support Groups? People have abandoned primary groups People find substitutes to fill needs

Those who learn to cope often turn around and help new members Slide # 53 What Purposes Do Support Groups Serve? They provide moral support from people

in similar situations They offer empathy and understanding They give people the opportunity to become members of an in-group Slide # 54 The Networking Effect Members

exchange numbers and communicate No professional charges, but no professional help 24-hour service and information Slide # 55 Attitudes

Slide # 56 Definition of Attitude A predisposition to respond in a particular way 3 main elements 1. A belief or opinion 2. A feeling about something

3. A tendency to act toward something in a particular way Slide # 57 Cognitive Sources Factual information Cognitive dissonance

Inoculation effect Slide # 58 Emotional Sources Strong feelings without knowing why Classical

conditioning Subliminal techniques Slide # 59 A Subliminal Example 1971 ad in Time

magazine Cost: $75,000 24.2 million readers Free associate (What do you see?) Slide # 60 Subliminal Example # 2

Slide # 61 Objects Have Gender A sphere or oval is feminine, a cube is masculine A flower is feminine, a tree is masculine

A cat is feminine, a dog is masculine Slide # 62 The Importance of Color Red excites Yellow promotes

well-being Green soothes Dark colors add weight Light colors suggest lightness Slide # 63 Size of an Object Close-ups

= larger than life, sense of urgency, used to sell necessary products Far away = luxury items, removes the sense of urgency and replaces it with a feeling of extravagance Slide # 64

Social Sources Culture Reference groups as a standard for evaluation Slide # 65

Behavioral Sources Behavior itself can cause attitudes to change Slide # 66 How Are

Attitudes Measured? Psychologists use many different techniques to measure attitudes Slide # 67

Public Opinion Polls Selecting a representative sample is crucial Important to avoid biases

Slide # 68 Attitude Scales Likert Scale 1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Undecided 4. Disagree

5. Strongly disagree Slide # 69 Semantic Differential Good/bad Happy/sad Beautiful/ugly Wise/foolish Funny/humorless

Slide # 70 Unobtrusive Methods Milgram/lost letter Slide # 71

How Are Attitudes Changed? People are always trying to change your attitude Slide # 72

Conformity Asch conformity study, 1950 People will usually conform to other peoples ideas even when they disagree with those ideas

Slide # 73 Aschs Experiment Which line segment, is closest in length to the sample line: a, b, or c?

Slide # 74 Scare Tactics Smoking/lung cancer Driver training and highway patrol films Scared Straight

Slide # 75 Obedience to Authority Stanley Milgram The psychologist as experimenter

Slide # 76 Military Basic Training Boot camp Ten weeks of indoctrination In your face attitude change

From civilian to soldier Slide # 77 Who Were Milgrams Subjects? In all but one version of the experiment, the subjects were males 40%=skilled and unskilled

40%=white collar (sales and business) 20%=professionals Slide # 78 The Set-Up Slide # 79 Making Mistakes

After 75 volts are administered for a mistake, the learner moans At 90 volts, the learner cries out in pain After 180 volts, the learner screams, saying he cannot stand the pain, and then begins to bang on the wall Slide # 80

39 Psychiatrists Surveyed Believed That Most subjects would stop at 150 volts Only 4% would go as high as 300 volts One in 1000 would go to 450 volts Slide # 81

5 Versions of the Experiment First version: all men, 65% went all the way (450 volts) Experimenter absent: 20.5% Women: 65% Experimenter chooses shock level:

2.5% High school students: 85% Slide # 82 Why Do People Obey? American society places a high value on obedience to

people in positions of authority Slide # 83 Military Pilots Slide # 84 Prestige And Credibility

Volunteers were influenced by their role as a subject in an experiment Done by a professor at Yale university Slide # 85

Not Everyone Is Equally Obedient Sadistic or obedient? Personality variables Life experiences

Slide # 86 Nuremberg War Crimes Trial The tribunal did not intend to punish all Germans, only the ringleaders

22 Nazi leaders were indicted Slide # 87 My Lai, Vietnam: 1968 300400 victims, mostly women and

children Company C lands on the LZ outside the village Capt. Medina, Lt. Calley in charge Slide # 88 Civil Disobedience Rosa

Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott Slide # 89 Aggression Slide # 90

Violent Crimes 1.5 million violent crimes are committed in the U.S. each year, including 90,000 rapes

and 20,000 murders 3 times more likely to be murdered by a relative Slide # 91 Why Are We Aggressive? ThanatosFreuds

death instinct View of evolutionary psychologists Hereditary aggression Slide # 92 The Brain and Aggression Amygdala

Hypothalamus Prefrontal cortex Slide # 93 Hormones and Aggression Testosterone,

a primary male hormone Alcohol and other drugs Slide # 94

Learning and Aggression People learn aggression by watching and imitating others People become more aggressive if rewarded

Frustration Slide # 95 Pornography Connection Slide # 96 Altruism/Unselfishness Concern for Anothers Welfare

Slide # 97 The CostReward Theory People find the sight of another person being victimized as anxiety-provoking; helping relieves this

anxiety Diffusion of responsibility Slide # 98 Empathy-Altruism Theory People are more likely to act

altruisticallyeven when the cost of helping is highif they feel empathy toward the person in need Slide # 99 Evolutionary Theory

Survival of the fittest: A person will risk their life for someone else because if they survive, it increases the likelihood that their traits will

endure through generations Slide # 100 The Rise of Cults Slide # 101 Death Cults

Charles Mansons family Rev. Jim Jones: Peoples Temple,

Jonestown, New Guyana David Koresh: Branch Davidian cult Marshall Applewhite: Heavens Gate cult Slide # 102 Conversion Model Tension

or strain (job failure, marital breakup) Religiously-oriented problem-solving perspective Open to a new religious outlook Be at a turning point in life Slide # 103

Situational Factors Need to possess a close personal tie with one or more cult member Ties with people on the outside must be neutralized/nonexistent Intensive, daily interaction with cult members

Slide # 104 Tactics of Cult Leaders Brainwashing/mind control Isolation Sleep deprivation, protein-deficient diet Exotic rituals

Slide # 105 Qualities of Cult Leaders Charismatic personalities Apocalyptic world view Interest in the Bible

Prophet status among their followers Slide # 106 An Early Cult Definition of a cult: a religious

organization that is largely outside of societys cultural traditions and norms Ghost Dance: 1870s Slide # 107 Jonestown 1979 Early

years The Peoples Temple in San Francisco Life in Jonestown, Guyana The Leo Ryan investigation Slide # 108

Vernon Howell, A.K.A. David Koresh Offshoot of Seventh Day Adventists Early years Waco and the Branch Davidians

Slide # 109 The Davidian Ruler Dietary controls Apocalyptic world view Polygamy

The Star of David Slide # 110 The Final Assault Initial ATF raid 51-day standoff Psychological

warfare Send in the tanks and the riot gas Slide # 111 Heavens Gate Largest suicide on U.S. soil

Early years/rituals Set thine house in order: for thou shalt die, and not live (Isaiah) Slide # 112 Are Cult Members Brainwashed?

Brainwashing Techniques 1. Total control and uncertainty 2. Isolation and torture 3. Physical weakening and personal humiliation Slide # 113

Attitude and Prejudice Prejudice is a preconceived notion toward a person or a group Prejudice is strengthened by stereotyping

Slide # 114 A 1950s Male Stereotype: The Rebel Slide # 115 The Private Eye

Slide # 116 An Early Jock Stereotype Slide # 117 The Hippie Slide # 118

Racial Stereotypes: The Jew Slide # 119 The Mexican Slide # 120 The Italian

Slide # 121 The Pole Slide # 122 Native American Stereotypes

Slide # 123 Stereotypes of African American Women Slide # 124 Little Black Sambo Slide # 125

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