Push-in Contextualized ELD Session 2. Friday, Sept. 26, 2014 1. Warming up with linguistics 2. Larsen-Freeman (2014) 3. Model Lesson
Break 4. Discussion of Fillmore & Fillmore Article and Text Complexity 5. Form & Meaning: Prepositional Phrases ELL Language Production Elements in the system of language Phonology: the study of the sounds of a language Morphology: the study of words and parts of words Syntax: the study of the structure of sentences and the
rules that govern their formation Semantics: the study of meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases and sentences Pragmatics: the study of language use in context Larsen-Freeman (2014) Re-read the Experience section at the beginning of the article. 1. What do you notice about this example? 2. Have you ever had a similar experience as a student? 3. How about as a teacher?
Jigsaw Activity with Larsen-Freeman (2014) Section 1: How is Grammar Taught? A Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework and the Learning Process 1. Explain the difference between prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. 2. How do these ideas relate to the opening example? 3. How do they relate to the three-dimensional framework? Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework
MEANING/ FORM/ USE/ STRUCTURE SEMANTICS PRAGMATICS Section 1: How is Grammar Taught? A Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework and the Learning Process Summarize the authors four insights regarding the learning process Learners do not learn constructions one at a time.
Even when learners appear to have mastered a particular construction, it is not uncommon to find new errors being made. Language learners rely on knowledge they already have. Different learning processes are responsible for different aspects of language. and choose one insight to illustrate through a role-play for the class. Section 2: How is grammar learned? Form, Meaning, and Use In her discussion of form, Larsen-Freeman writes that the proper goal of grammar instruction should be
grammaring (p. 264). Please explain this practice in your own words. The author gives specific examples of how to emphasize the three dimensions of grammar (form, meaning, use) in the classroom. Share these classroom activities Form Activities: Meaning Activities: Use Activities:
and choose one to model for the rest of the group. Section 3: How is grammar taught? Explicit Grammar Instruction and Feedback Summarize Larsen-Freemans discussion of four models for explicit grammar instruction. Consciousness-raising Garden path Corpus-informed Collaborative dialogues Demonstrate an instructional activity for the rest of the group that uses one of these instructional models. While rules provide some security for learners, reasons give them a deeper understanding of the logic of English
and help them make it their own (p. 268). Explain this idea and how it can inform your own approach in teaching your ELLs. Final Points on Teaching Grammar (Larsen-Freeman, 2014) Communicative approaches emphasize language use over rules of language use, and see language as dynamic rather than static. We are teaching students as we are teaching grammar (p. 257). We do not want our students to learn grammatical facts. What we hope to do is to help them use grammatical structures accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately. It is useful for teachers to have a grammar checklist rather
than relying on a grammatical sequence. The three dimensions do not always need to be present in one lesson. The teacher prioritizes them depending on students needs. Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework MEANING/ FORM/ USE/ STRUCTURE SEMANTICS PRAGMATICS
Eruption! ELD Lesson Plan Creation: Eruption! p4-9 1. Grade 2-3. Unit theme: Volcanoes. Standard: 3. Function: Link text using temporal and cohesive words 2. Level 2: coor conj, adv of time/sequence Level 5: subordinating conjunctions 3. Add the functions and forms to my curriculum map. 4. Text p4-9: L2: coor conj: but (p4, 6), and (p5, 6, 8, 9), or (p7) adv of seq: at first (p8) L5: sub conj: if (p6), because (p6), once (p9) 5. See Function/Form Analysis Chart 6.
Level 2: Provide list of forms and sentence frames Level 5: Provide list of forms and sentence frames Students put pictures in order then tell their story to partner (who has different pictures) Student writes 1 paragraph story about a volcano erupting based on the photos and book 7. Observation of interaction, 1 paragraph story Lesson Plan Creation: Eruption! p 10-14 1. Considering the theme of the unit, the materials, and the needs of your students, choose the function(s) for the unit: What will students DO with language? 2. Considering the level of your studentsdetermine which forms
they will need to be taught in order to accomplish the work. 3. Add each function and form to your personal curriculum map. 4. Examine your materials to see if the forms are present in them or if you will need to teach them directly. 5. Fill out Function/Form Analysis Chart 6. What tasks will the students do? (30 min) (Receptive, Interactive, Productive) Teacher modeling Group or scaffolded practice Individual practice 7. How will I assess students learning? Break
What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? (Fillmore and Fillmore, 2012) What Does Text Complexity Mean for English Learners and Language Minority Students? (Fillmore and Fillmore, 2012) The language used in complex texts is difficult and cannot be learned through talking with native speakers, but only though working with the texts themselves. It is especially critical that students have access to complex texts because after fourth grade, they serve as the vehicle for content delivery. (K-3: Learning to read; 4-12: Reading
to learn) Academic texts are marked by INFORMATIONAL DENSITY: every clause or phrase contains information critical to understanding the topic. (Biber, Conrad, and Leech, 2002) Strategy: Looking Closely at Language One Sentence at a Time Students do not necessarily need to learn the grammatical and linguistic terms related to complex texts, but they do need to learn how to understand the ideas found in such writing. Planning is necessary: teachers must choose a sentence
that is grammatically interesting and complex, and which contains ideas necessary for understanding the content. The practice helps teachers engage their students in the consciousness-raising and noticing of language forms referred to by Larsen-Freeman (2014). In the example cited by the authors, teachers engaged in the practice just 15-20 minutes daily. One Sentence Analysis The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett It was in that strange and sudden way that Mary found out that she had neither father nor mother left; that they had died and been carried away in the night, and that the few native servants who had
not died also had left the house as quickly as they could get out of it, none of them even remembering that there was a Missie Sahib (p. 7). One Sentence Analysis The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett It was in that strange and sudden way that Mary found out that she had neither father nor mother left; Mary found out that she had neither father nor mother left; [in that strange and sudden way] One Sentence Analysis
The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett Mary found out [WHAT DID SHE FIND OUT?] that she had neither mother nor father left [WHAT HAPPENED TO THEM?] that they had died and been carried away in the night [AND?] that the few native servants who had not died [WHICH ONES?]
also had left the house [HOW DID THEY LEAVE THE HOUSE?] as quickly as they could get out of it [ANYTHING ELSE?] none of them remembering [REMEMBERING WHAT?] that there was a Missie Sahib. One Sentence Analysis Eruption! The rock that comes out of a volcano is called lava (8).
The rock [that comes out of a volcano] is called lava. Video Herrell & Jordan, 2012 Form and Meaning: Prepositional Phrases The Most Frequent Prepositions? A preposition + a noun phrase While some of its articles are technical, requiring an understanding of voice spectrograms, others are accessible to anyone. Form and Meaning: Prepositional Phrases
A preposition + a noun phrase While some of its articles are technical, requiring an understanding of voice spectrograms, others are accessible to anyone. 1) post-noun modifier 2) sentence modifier Prepositional Phrases in non-fiction Horses were unknown in North America until the 1500s, when Spanish explorers began arriving. The explorers sailed from Spain with horses onboard their ships. They used the
horses to explore the New World. During this exploration many of the horses were lost. 5th Grade History text Prepositional Phrases in non-fiction Horses were unknown in North America until the 1500s, when Spanish explorers began arriving. The explorers sailed from Spain with horses onboard their ships. They used the horses to explore the New World. During this exploration many of the horses were lost. 5th Grade History text 1) post-noun modifier
2) sentence modifier Frequency of Prepositions in Conversational vs. Academic English Biber, Conrad, & Leech. 2002. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. # of Prepositions per 1000 words 180 160 140 120 100 80
60 40 20 0 conv acad Prepositional Phrases the 4 functions prepositional phrases that modify
nouns The students in the class are studying. prepositional phrases that express attitude, point of view se, it i r
p r u s To my f fun. o t o l a was prepositional phrases that tell
when, where, why, how, how much, how long The teachers will finish at 4:30. prepositional phrases that link ideas In addition, we will provide snacks. Prepositional Phrases
the 4 functions prepositional phrases that modify nouns prepositional phrases that tell when, where, why, how, how much, how long prepositional phrases that link ideas
These We leftkinds Take, for example, at questions In of mymidnight. opinion, athats rubber chicken.
are aeasy. great idea. prepositional phrases that express attitude, point of view Prepositional Phrases the 4 functions prepositional phrases that modify
nouns prepositional phrases that tell when, where, why, how, how much, how long prepositional phrases that link ideas prepositional phrases that express attitude, point of view
Lets see where the leaves grow in students texts! Push-in Contextualized ELD Looking Forward Next Tuesday, Sept. 30 1. Bring any teaching materials in which you want to include some explicit language teaching. 2. Bring your Azar Grammar Chartbook. 3. Prepare for presentations for the last session (Oct 10).
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