ALEXANDER THE GREAT Relationship with Macedonians The Sogdian

ALEXANDER THE GREAT Relationship with Macedonians The Sogdian

ALEXANDER THE GREAT Relationship with Macedonians The Sogdian Rock Use the clip from In the Footsteps

of Alexander to answer the following questions: 1. What was it about the Sogdian Rock that made it supposedly impenetrable? 2. How did Alexander overcome the challenge of the Sogdians to find soldiers

who can fly? Alexander Gets Married! After the capture of the Sogdian Rock, Alexander fell in love with Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes, the local satrap. They were married in a traditional Persian ceremony.

The picture of the ceremony is from a later Indian source. Was it love or politics? In small groups discuss whether you think Alexander married for love or politics. Some things to think about....

Roxanne was the daughter of Oxyartes (local baron who Alex defeated in The Sogdian Rock) Why did Alex choose to get married in a traditional Persian ceremony? What were the positive and negative outcomes of this? The Policy of Fusion Alexander knew that if he was to rule the Persian Empire, he

would need to gain the support of the Persians. This seems to have been his main motivation behind his Policy of Fusion, the name given to his attempts to bring Greeks and Persians together. Some features of the Policy of Fusion: Appointment of Persians to leadership positions (First

example Mazaeus was reappointed satrap of Babylon) Adoption of Persian dress by Alexander. Adoption of some Persian Problems caused by the

Policy of Fusion Burning of Persepolis 330BC Death of Philotas and Parmenio 330BC Death of Cleitus 328BC Callisthenes and proskynesis 327BC Royal Pages Conspiracy 327BC Mutiny on the Hyphasis 326BC Journey through Gedrosia 325 BC

Execution of Generals of Medea 325BC Flight of Harpalus 325BC Mutiny at Opis 324BC The Susa Weddings 324BC The Burning of the Palace at Persepolis Arrians version:

Alexander wished to punish the Persians for their invasion of Greece; his present act was retribution for the destruction of Athens, the burning of the temples, and all the other crimes they had committed against the Greeks. My own view is that this was bad policy. Read ReadDiodorus Diodorusaccount

accountof ofthe theburning burningof ofthe the palace palace(booklet), (booklet),then

thenPlutarchs Plutarchs(Artus (Artusp.63) p.63) Answer Answerthe thequestions questionsin

inyour yourbooklet bookleton onp. p.55 THEN THENhighlight highlightthe

thekey keyparts partsin inDiodorus Diodorusaccount account The Conspiracy of Philotas

Philotas and Parmenio Conspiring against Alexander? The Conspiracy of Philotas Philotas Boyhood friend of Alexander Commander of Companion Cavalry

Why get rid of him? He was an egomaniac who often boasted of his achievements and belittled Alexanders Others had reported his disloyalty to Alex. He and his father represented the older Macedonians who had served under Philip and did not support the Policy of Fusion. He could be a potential rival to Alex - conspirators

against Alex would look to him for help Alex was becoming increasingly paranoid If he made an example of Philotas, other conspirators would be discouraged. The Conspiracy of Philotas Parmenio was executed as well the reason for (his) execution may have been

that Alexander could not believe that he had no share in his sons conspiracy; on the other hand, even granting his innocence, his living on after his sons execution was already in fact a danger; for he was a man of immense prestige: he had great influence not only with Alexander but also with the army and not

only the Macedonian units, but also with the mercenary soldiers. - Arrian Parmenio Murdered at Ecbatana By officers acting

under Alexs orders In 330BC The Murder of Cleitus Events leading to Cleitus death (flowchart) TASK: In your booklets (p. 9) make a flowchart of events leading to Cleitus death. The first one has been done for you.

Cleitus General in army Had served under Philip Saved Alexs life at Granicus Killed at Maracanda Callisthenes and Proskynesis Complete the notes on this, using Hamilton (top p105-top p107) and Artus p.95

Persians: This is showing respect to someone of greater social rank. And who is greater than the Great King? Greeks: We only bow down before the gods. No way should this be done before a mortal man it is hubris.

The Pages Conspiracy The Pages Conspiracy The Necessary Knowledge: (Booklet p. 11) 1. Who were the Royal Pages? 2. Why did the Pages get upset with Alexander? 3. What did they plan to do about it?

4. Why did the plot fail? 5. How was Callisthenes involved? And what happened to him? 6. What events related to the conspiracy? The Two Mutinies at the River Beas/Hyphasis (India) 326BC

1. Watch the clip and note down what happens. 2. Fill in the table in your booklet (p. 12) 3. Watch the clip

again which bit is which? at Opis (Central Persia) 324BC The Mutiny at the River Beas (Hyphasis)

The Necessary Knowledge: 1. List the reasons why Alexanders men refused to go any further than the river Beas. 2. How did Alexander react to the mutiny? 3. Why did he decide to take an alternative route back?

The Gedrosian Desert 325BC The Gedrosian Desert The Gedrosian Desert 1.

325BC Read Artus account of the crossing of the desert (pg.69). As a class: Brainstorm the difficulties faced by the Macedonians in this crossing. 2. Read the accounts of the crossing of the

Gedrosian Desert by Arrian (Artus pages 70-71). Why did Alexander want to cross the Desert?

What action does Arrian call one of Alexanders noblest? What evidence is there of Alexanders excellent leadership skills during the difficult march through Gedrosia?

The Gedrosian Desert Pic: www.livius.org The Macedonian Generals of Media Hamilton 128-130, Artus p.72

1. Which Macedonians were involved in the abuse of power? How many? 2. What were the charges? 3. How did Alexander react? 4. Why did Alexander punish them so severely? Result: Fear spread throughout the empire and even Harpalus fled in fear.

The Harpalus Affair Harpalus was one of Alexanders boyhood friends, who had been left with the job of looking after Alexanders Treasury at Babylon in 331. Six years later, upon hearing that Alexander was returning to Babylon, Harpalus panicked and fled with 5000 talents and 6000 men. Where to and Why? Athens. Harpalus had become corrupt and misspent Alexanders money. Alex

had executed a number of his officials. H feared he was next. H had been made Athenian citizen. What happened? H tried to stir up a rebellion against Alexander. Athens refused H. entry to city, because of his army. Took his forces to Taenarum and left them there. This time, Athens put him under open arrest and took his 700 remaining talents. The Susa Weddings 324BC

The Wedding Ceremonies: The weddings were celebrated after the Persian manner, seats being placed in a row for the bridegrooms; and after the banquet the brides came in and seated themselves, each one near her own husband. The bridegrooms took them by the right hand and kissed them; the king being the first to begin, for the weddings of all were

conducted in the same way. This appeared the most popular thing which Alexander ever did; and it proved his affection for his Companions. Each man took his own bride and led her away; and on all without exception Alexander bestowed dowries, He also ordered that the names of all the other Macedonians who had married any of the Asiatic women should be registered. They were over 10,000 in number; and to these Alexander made presents on account of their weddings. The wedding ceremonies lasted for 5 days and took place

in a luxurious tent erected for the occasion. - Arrian Who married who? Alexander married 2 princesses, the eldest daughter of Darius, Barsine, and the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III. Hephaistion married another daughter of Darius (so that Alexander was uncle to his children).

The other companions married Persian noble women; more than 90 noble marriages were celebrated and each pair was given a handsome dowry by Alexander. Alexander also ordered all the Macedonians who had previously married Asiatic women to register their marriages. 10,000 men followed this order and Alexander rewarded them with wedding gifts. (This act was designed to improve relations with his troops and it had nothing to do with the policy of fusion which was confined to

Macedonians and Persians, not all Asians). The Susa Weddings 324BC Answer the following questions: 1. Briefly describe how the Susa Weddings were staged. 2. How and why did Alexander acknowledge existing relationships

between Greeks and Persians? The significance of the Susa Weddings: Many of these marriages did not last after Alexanders death but they were very important: Symbolic of the fact that power had now passed to the Macedonians. Marked the fact that Alexander was now the Great King ruling in an oriental style as the absolute monarch (the weddings were another example of Alexanders policy of fusion).

TASK: To what extent did Alexander believe in the Brotherhood of Man? Was the policy of fusion about equality between races, or maintenance of an Empire? Explain your view in 400 words, using examples from the information gathered over the past few lessons.

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