PHENIX Heavy Ion Results and Perspectives John Lajoie

PHENIX  Heavy Ion Results and Perspectives John Lajoie

PHENIX Heavy Ion Results and Perspectives John Lajoie Iowa State University The View From PHENIX PHENIX in Run-5 HI performance and datasets Recent Results and Future Prospects Emphasis on Penetrating Probes What can we hope to learn? Run-4 AuAu data Run-5 CuCu data 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 1 PHENIX Configuration in Run-5 TOF-West RPC prototype installed and tested in CuCu running.

Full Aerogel Counter Prototype RPC muon trigger chambers. n=1.018 +2 GeV/c NSF $1.98M Approved! ALSO: New LVL1 Triggers (MuID and ERT) Improved DAQ (>5kHz) Multi-Event Buffering (95% live) OnCal calibrations LVL2 Filtering rare events 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 2 PHENIX DAQ Performance

2004-5 2003-4 2002-3 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 3 OnCal and LVL2 PHENIX placed a strong emphasis in Run-5 on the semireal time production of rare event data. Online Calibrations (OnCal) performed for every run Level-2 (LVL2) filtering run on Level-1 triggered events Output a few % of total data Very rich in physics signals! To HPSS 36 TB Buffer Disk EvB OnCal LVL2 02/22/20

J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting To ORNL (production) 4 200GeV CuCu Integrated Luminosity 4.84 nb-1 live ZDCNS (=2.6 b) PHENIX Goal 2.9 nb-1 live BBCLL1 (Final 3/6/05) 8.6 B BBCLL1 events sampled 1.08 B BBCLL1 events recorded (1.78 B events total) 3.06 nb-1 live BBCLL1 (=2.91 b) (2.83 nb-1 with MuID North/South) 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting

5 62.4 GeV CuCu Integrated Luminosity (Final - 3/22/05) 370.7 b-1 live ZDCNS (=2.3 b) 190.2 b-1 recorded BBCLL1 (=2.2 b) 425 M BBCLL1 events recorded 61 M ZDCNS, 140 M ERT2x2, 100 M CLOCK PHENIX Goal 92 b-1 recorded BBCLL1 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 6 0 Reach in CuCu 62.4 GeV Goal was pT reach comparable to AuAu 62.4 GeV LVL2 cut Filtered LVL2 on 161M minbias events (39% of total).

Run-5 CuCu data will provide an excellent comparison with AuAu dataset! 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 7 CuCu at 22.5 GeV The injection energy run for CuCu opens additional exciting opportunities: Raw Yield (a.u.) Collected 9.3M BBCLL1 events RAA for 0 at 22.5 GeV? pT ~ 5 GeV is xT 2 pT ~ 0. 4 ! s 02/22/20 Fraction of available n-n CMS energy carried by a particle in the final state PHENIX Preliminary

0 at sqrt(s) = 22.5 GeV! J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting pT (GeV/c) 8 Penetrating Probes Hard Scattered Partons Result in high-pT particles in the final state Jets, Charm Calibrated, well-understood initial state Final state vs. Initial State effect Clarified by d+Au measurements I will focus this talk mostly on hard probes. Understanding improves at higher pT Sample the earliest stages of the collision

Direct photons Standard Candle for energy loss Electromagnetic Probes Chiral Symmetry restoration Light vector mesons Provide information about the thermal character of the system Thermal radiation could tell us a great deal about the statistical character of the system. 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 9 Jet Quenching R AA Final Data Yield AuAu / N binary AuAu Yield pp

Preliminary Data Suppression in AuAu data as a function of centrality Enhancement in d+Au data (Cronin effect) 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 10 Hard Scattering? How do we know that we have hard scattering in the first place? xT scaling of invariant cross-section: xT 2 pT s d 3 1 1 E 3 n F ( xT ) n G ( xT ) d p pT s The power n( xT , s ) due to higher order effects

Measured cross sections should scale with xT 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 11 xT Scaling PRC 69, 034910 (2004) Deviation from xT scaling occurs at pT ~ 2 GeV/c 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 12 xT Scaling in AuAu Collisions Does xT scaling work in AuAu collisions do we really see hard scattering? PRC 69, 034910 (2004) Assuming structure and fragmentation functions scale, should get same n. Power law exponent derived by dividing 130 and 200 GeV data.

Something special about charged hadrons in central collisions? 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 13 Protons vs. Pions Protons and antiprotons in AuAu collisions are weird! PRL 91, 172301 (2003) Excess of protons compared to pions at high-p T Wait a minute dont these particle come from jet fragmentation? 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 14 Jet Fragmentation Study the effect of the medium through the modification of jet fragmentation More detail about the medium through how the fragmentation is modified. Analysis systematics better controlled at high pT

Run-4 (AuAu) and Run-5 (CuCu) offer complimentary datasets! CARTOON flow+jet AuAu flow F 02/22/20 N J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 15 EOS From Jet Structure? Back-angle correlations in AuAu display unusual shape! PHENIX Preliminary

Indication of shock wave? hep-ph/0411315 nucl-th/0506013 2 syst If so this may measure the speed of sound in the medium! Run-4,5 needed to push to higher pT! 1 syst Easier to deal with v2 Narrowing correlation peaks 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting

16 Another View Far Side Near Side PHENIX Preliminary 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 17 IDd Particle Correlations trigger near side < 90 jet partner away side > 90 opposing jet CARTOON flow+jet flow

F N PRC 71, 051902(R) (2005) 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 18 Higher pT is good! Whatever the effect, the proton to pion ratio appears to return to normal at high pT. Higher pT may be essential to separate effects such as recombination from jet energy loss for charged hadrons Should be able to develop a consistent picture for 0 and charged

In the most central collisions, jet physics may be most cleanly done for pT>4-5 GeV/c Higher pT reach of Run-4,5 datasets essential! 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting PRC 69, 034910 (2004) 19 Direct Photons in AuAu Its easy to measure the direct photons because the 0s are heavily suppressed! Comparison with pQCD calculation agrees with measured multiplicity we understand the initial state. 02/22/20

J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 20 Photon Tagged Jets High statistics datasets in CuCu and AuAu allow for the correlation of direct photons with partner jets. The photon escapes the medium unmodified. Calibrates the energy of the jet Reduced Bias Jet correlations through leading particles biases you to high as well as the corona of the collision volume Again, high pT essential High signal/background for direct photons Jet particles free from lower-pT effects (recombination, flow) 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting Hadrons

21 J/Production The Run-4 and Run-5 datasets will finally enable use of the J/ as a probe of the matter created at RHIC. The behavior of J/ production can tell us a lot about the medium! Large integrated luminosity required to collect sufficient J/ Suppression dissociation of J/ by medium Enhancement formation of J/ by recombination Maybe a little of both , , c c

Study the pT, rapdiity dependence! 02/22/20 dependence J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting C o lo r S c r e e n in g 22 J/in Run-4 AuAu J/->e+e- (1/3 of data sample) 0-20% 60.6 +- 11.8 20-40%

40-90% 55.7 +- 8.6 J/->+South 33.7arm +- 6.4 North arm J/-> peripheral evts peripheral evts Data production and analysis underway see you at QM05! 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 23 J/e+e- in CuCu 200 GeV

PHENIX Preliminary (LVL2 Filter) PHENIX Preliminary (LVL2 Filter) 1249+/-61 J/ Handful of counts in upsilon mass region! Results from LVL2 fast analysis and preliminary calibrations (semi real-time) No corrections have been applied to the data Full analysis underway. 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 24 J/ in CuCu 200 GeV North Muon Arm South Muon Arm PHENIX Preliminary (LVL2 Filter)

4690+/-162 J/ PHENIX Preliminary (LVL2 Filter) 6567+/-201 J/ Results from LVL2 fast analysis and preliminary calibrations (semi real-time) No corrections have been applied to the data Full analysis underway. 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 25 PHENIX Data Production PHENIX is making use of collaboration resources to stay ahead of the incoming data: Run-4 AuAu Data Production at RCF Preliminary results from full dataset for QM05 Run-4 Muon Production at Computing Center - France (CC-F)

LVL2 filtered production underway Run-4 pp Production at Computing Center - Japan (CC-J) Run-5 CuCu 200 GeV/62.4 GeV LVL2 filtered analysis will yield QM05 preliminary results 100 M minbias events produced in counting house (200 GeV) 150 M minbias events poduced in counting house (62.4 GeV) Full production at RCF this summer (after Run-4 complete) Run-5 CuCu 22.5 GeV All events produced in 1008 Run-5 pp production at CC-J LVL2 filtered analysis All pp data shipped via network to CC-J during run 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 26

Coming Soon Eighteen parallel talks at QM05: 02/22/20 PHENIX Measurement of Particle Yields at High pT with Respect to Reaction Plane in Au+Au collisions at

sqrt(s) = 200 GeV, David Winter High pT pi0, eta, identified charged hadron and inclusive charged hadron spectra from PHENIX, Maya Shimomura Probing Cold and Hot, Dense Nuclear Media via High pT Jets with Di-hadron and gamma-hadron Correlations with PHENIX, Nathan Grau Flavor Dependence of jet-correlations in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) =200GeV with the PHENIX Detector, Wolf Holzmann Measurement of Direct Photons in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au Collisions with the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC, Stefan Bathe Evidence for a long-range pion emission source in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200GeV in PHENIX, Paul Chung Systematic study of identified particle production in PHENIX, Masahiro Konno Anisotropic Flow in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at RHIC - PHENIX, Hiroshi Masui Nuclear modifications and elliptic flow measurements for phi mesons at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV dAu and AuAu collisions by PHENIX, Dipali Pal Measurement of event-by-event fluctuations and order parameters in PHENIX, Tomoaki Nakamura PHENIX results on $J/\psi$ production in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV, Hugo Pereira Study of $J/\psi$ Production in $p+p$ and $d+Au$ Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV by the PHENIX Experiment, Sasha Lebedev Heavy flavor production in p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV, from single leptons over a wide kinematic range, Youngil Kwon PHENIX results on Open Heavy flavor production in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV, Sergei Butsyk Comparison of Phi properties as seen in dielectron and hadronic decay channels in Au+Au collisions by PHENIX at RHIC, Sasha Kozlov First measurement of omega-meson production with the PHENIX Experimetn at RHIC, Viktor Riabov Measurement of low mass dielectron continuum in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions in the PHENIX

Experiment at RHIC, Alberica Toia Analysis of three-particle correlations in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at PHENIX, Mate Csanad J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 27 Summary The first RHIC runs have allowed us to establish the baseline for the use of hard probes. The Run-4 (AuAu) and Run-5 (CuCu) datasets will allow us to finally exploit these probes: Detailed (quantitative) examination of energy loss as a function of collision geometry and nuclear system Photon-tagged jets will allow energy calibration Use of J/ as a probe of created matter 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 28 University of So Paulo, So Paulo, Brazil Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, China China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, P. R. China

Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague, Czech Republic Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 7, 11519 Prague, Czech Republic Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague, Czech Republic Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Universite de ClermontFerrand, 63 170 Aubiere, Clermont-Ferrand, France Dapnia, CEA Saclay, Bat. 703, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France IPN-Orsay, Universite Paris Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, BP1, F-91406 Orsay, France Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Route de Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau, France SUBATECH, Ecle des Mines at Nantes, F-44307 Nantes France University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA KFKI RMKI), Budapest, Hungary Debrecen University, Debrecen, Hungary Evs Lornd University (ELTE), Budapest, Hungary Banaras Hindu University, Banaras, India Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, India Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, 76100, Israel Center for Nuclear Study (CNS-Tokyo), University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 188, Japan Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739, Japan KEK - High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki, Japan RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan RIKEN BNL Research Center, Japan, located at BNL Physics Department, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi Ibaraki-ken 305-8577, Japan Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan Cyclotron Application Laboratory, KAERI, Seoul, South Korea Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702, South Korea Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, Korea Myong Ji University, Yongin City 449-728, Korea System Electronics Laboratory, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea IHEP (Protvino), State Research Center of Russian Federation "Institute for High Energy Physics", Protvino 142281, Russia Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR-Dubna), Dubna, Russia Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia PNPI, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region, 188300, Russia Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow 119992, Russia Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical Univiversity, Politechnicheskayastr, 29,

St. Petersburg, 195251, Russia Map No. 3933 Rev. 2 UNITED N ATIONS Augus t 1999 Department of Public Information Cartographic Section 13 Countries; 62 Institutions; 550 Participants*

Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas, USA Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY 11973, USA University of California - Riverside (UCR), Riverside, CA 92521, USA University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Columbia University, Nevis Laboratories, Irvington, NY 10533, USA Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901, USA Florida State University (FSU), Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA Georgia State University (GSU), Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA Iowa State University (ISU) and Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011, USA Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA 94550, USA University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook (USB), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook (USB), Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA University of Tennessee (UT), Knoxville, TN 37996, USA Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA

*as of March 2005 BACKUP 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 30 The PHENIX Detector EM Calorimeter Beam-Beam Counter Time Expansion Chamber Muon Tracking Chambers Central Arms

Muon ID Panels Pad Chambers Multiplicity/Vertex Detector Drift Chambers North Muon Arm South Muon Arm Time of Flight Panels Ring Imaging Cerenkov 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 31 NA44

single particle distributions semi-leptonic D decays NA50 heavy flavor decay strangeness production spin program W+,WWA80 E859 ET, dET/d, fluctuations 02/22/20 jet quenching J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting

32 Assoc. Particle Spectra 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 33 Background or Signal? 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 34 Perturbative QCD Very good agreement between 0 data in pp collisions at 200 GeV and NLO pQCD calculations We have a good theoretical calibration for NLO pQCD hard

scattering (initial state). Provides the starting point to allow used of hard probes for quantitative measurements. PRL 91, 241803 (2003) 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 35 Probing Fragmentation (AuAu) (2.5

quantitative, microscopic (partonic) level: What are the relevant degrees of freedom? Is there deconfinement? Is there chiral symmetry restoration? Is the system a statistical ensemble? How do we answer these questions? These are very difficult to address experimentally The next step in our understanding will come from penetrating probes of the created matter. Do we understand the initial conditions? Where are we now? What can we expect from Run-4 (AuAu) and Run-5 (CuCu) data 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 37 Au+Au @ 62.4 GeV

10-30% 0-10% Systematic error due to pp reference RAA calculated using ISR data for pp reference. Systematics could be greatly reduced with RHIC pp reference at 62.4 GeV! 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 38 Sloss vs. Npart Sloss calculated from pT averaged RAA values. Npart scaling shows that the observed energy loss is consistent with particles losing a fraction of their energy. Agreement with GLV mechanism for mediuminduced energy loss.

nucl-ex/0410003 02/22/20 Does this hold at higher pT ? J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 39 More Detail on Energy Loss Lets try to get more detail on the energy loss: pT pT S ( pT ) pT S 0 pT pT (1 S 0 ) We measure the particle at pT The particle originated at pT d 3n A E 3 n dp pT S loss 1 1

S0 (1 S 0 ) 1 R 1 /( n 2 ) AA 1 R 1 1 /( n 2 ) AA Sloss is the fractional energy loss of a parton as is traverses the medium! 02/22/20 J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 40 RAA vs. Reaction Plane

RAA can be calculated as a function of angle w.r.t the reaction plane. RAA for 0 in AuAu Use RAA to calculate Sloss as a function of angle More detailed information about path length dependence! Run-4 data will add: Higher reach in pT The PHENIX Preliminary = 90 Run-5 (CuCu) data: = 0 Different density and path length through medium J. Lajoie - RHIC/AGS User's Meeting 41

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