Participatory Adult Learning Strategy II: Overview Carol M.

Participatory Adult Learning Strategy II: Overview Carol M.

Participatory Adult Learning Strategy II: Overview Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D. Asheville and Morganton, North Carolina Concord, NH, July 16, 2015 2 Purposes of the Presentation Describe the key characteristics of an evidence-based approach to the implementation of professional development. Share results from two studies where we used the PALS II approach in trainings projects. 3 A Lesson Learned from More Than 40 Years of Experience

No intervention practice, no matter its evidence base, is likely to be adopted and used if the implementation methods used to teach or train practitioners to use the practice are themselves ineffective. Therefore, concern for the characteristics of implementation practices that are associated with optimal learner and practitioner outcomes should be of paramount importance as part of implementation research. 4 Child and Family Benefits 5 Definition of Terms Implementation practices include methods and procedures used by implementation agents (trainers, coaches, instructors, supervisors, etc.) to promote interventionists use of evidence-based intervention practices. Intervention practices include methods and strategies used by intervention agents (teachers, therapists,

clinicians, parents, etc.) to effect changes or produce desired outcomes in a targeted population or group of recipients (e.g., students with disabilities). 6 Relationship Between the Two Types of Practices Implementation Practices Participatory adult learning Coaching Mentoring Just-in-time training Guided design Accelerated learning Intervention Practices Interest-based student learning Natural environment practices Instructional classroom practices Communication and language

learning Family systems intervention practices 7 Principles Evidence-based intervention practices are a necessarybut not sufficientcondition to ensure optimal outcomes for students and families. Practitioners must be trained on intervention strategies using evidence-based adult learning implementation practices. 8 Two Types of Evidence-Based Practices Evidence-Based Intervention Practices Early childhood intervention practices

Evidence-Based Implementation Practices Adult learning methods 9 10 Development of the Participatory Adult Learning Strategy (PALS)a Center for Early Literacy Learning Research synthesis of studies of adult learning strategies Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1), 91-112. a 11 Research Synthesis of Adult Learning Studiesa Research synthesis of studies of accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training

58 randomized control design studies 2,095 experimental group participants and 2,213 control or comparison group participants Combination of studies in university and non-university settings Learner outcomes included learner knowledge, skills, attitudes, and selfefficacy beliefs The influence of the adult learning methods on the learner outcomes was estimated by weighted Cohens d effect sizes for the differences on the post test scores for the intervention vs. nonintervention group participants Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1), 91-112. a 12 Efficacy of the Adult Learning Methods Effect size for the intervention vs. nonintervention group comparisons is d = .42 (95% Confidence Interval = .36 to .47). 13 M E A N E F F E C T S IZ E (d )

Efficiency of the Four Adult Learning Methods 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 ADULT LEARNING METHOD 14 Translational Findings Process for unpacking and unbundling the key characteristics of the adult learning methods 15 Six Characteristics Identified in How People Learna Were Used To Code and Evaluate the Adult Learning Methods

Planning Introduce Engage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge or practice that is the focus of instruction or training Illustrate Demonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledge or practice for the learner Application Practice Engage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge or practice Evaluate Engage the learner in a process of evaluating the consequence or outcome of the application of the material, knowledge or practice

Deep Understanding Reflection Engage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledge and skills as a basis for identifying next steps in the learning process Mastery Engage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in the context of some conceptual or practical model or framework, or some external set of standards or criteria a Donovan, M. et al. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. M EA N EFFECT S IZE Effect Sizes for the Six Adult Learning Characteristics Planning Application

Understanding 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 Introduce Illustrate Practice Evaluate Reflection

Mastery LEARNING METHOD CHARACTERISTICS Average effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationships between the six adult learning method characteristics and the study outcomes. 17 Most Effective Adult Learning Method Practices Characteristic Practice Mean Effect Size Introduction Out-of-class learner activities/self-instruction Classroom/workshop presentations Pre-class learner exercises 0.64 0.63 0.54

Illustration Trainer role playing/simulations Learner-informed input 0.55 0.53 Practicing Real-life learner application Real-life learner application/role playing 0.94 0.86 Evaluation Self assessment of strengths/weaknesses 0.94

Reflection Identify performance improvement goals Journaling/behavior suggestions 1.27 0.82 Mastery Standards-based assessment 0.86 18 M E A N E FF E C T SIZE Cumulative Effects of Different Combinations of the Most Effective Adult Learning Method Practices 0.80 0.70

0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 2 3 5 6 NUMBER OF CHARACTERISTICS (CLUSTERS) Average Cohens d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship between different combinations (clusters) of adult learning methods characteristics and the study outcomes. 19 PALS II

(Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) FOUNDATIONS Introduce and Illustrate MASTERY Deep Understanding and Next Steps APPLICATION Practice and Assess Active Learner Involvement EVALUATION Review and Reflect 20

Trainer and Trainee Roles in the Different Phases of PALS II PALS Phases Trainer Roles Trainee Roles Foundations Preview learning topic Describe key elements Provide examples Include trainee input Illustrate application Demonstrate application Complete pre-training preview Pre-class/workshop exercises Provide input on the learning topic In-class/workshop warm-up exercises Application

Facilitate application Observe trainee application Provide in vivo feedback/guidance Provide examples of application Trainee role playing, games, etc. Implement/practice use of the subject matter Evaluate use of the knowledge or practice Facilitate learner assessment of options Evaluation Establish learning standards Engage learners in self-assessment Provide guidance to learners Provide behavioral suggestions Standards-based evaluation Conduct self-assessment Trainer-guided learner reflection Journaling Group discussions of understanding

Mastery Joint planning Trainer guidance Trainer/trainee mentoring Joint planning Identify needed information/experiences Trainer/trainee mentoring 21 PALS II Overview of PALS II training models Video Study I Prompting Family-Systems Intervention Promoting Adoption of

Family-Systems Intervention Practices 473 IDEA Part C early intervention practitioners 5 types of training (presentations, day and multi-day workshops, field-based and enhanced field-based) Participants were randomly assigned to complete the study outcome measure at one or six months after training The outcome measure included items on the usefulness of the training and the extent to which the training improved their abilities to work with families Six Characteristics Identified in How People Learna Were Used To Code and Evaluate the Adult Learning Methods Planning Introduce Engage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge or practice that is the focus of instruction or training Illustrate Demonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledge

or practice for the learner Application Practice Engage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge or practice Evaluate Engage the learner in a process of evaluating the consequence or outcome of the application of the material, knowledge or practice Deep Understanding Reflection Engage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledge and skills as a basis for identifying next steps in the learning process Mastery Engage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in the

context of some conceptual or practical model or framework, or some external set of standards or criteria a Donovan, M. et al. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Characteristics of the Different Types of In-Service Training Type of In-Service Training Practice Characteristics Half-Day/ Conference Full-Day Presentations Workshops Enhanced Multi-Day Field-Based Field-Based Workshops Training Training

Trainer introduction of the practice + + ++ ++ ++ Trainer illustration of use of the practice + + ++

++ Trainee application/use of the practice - + + ++ Trainee evaluation of his/her use of the practice - -

+ ++ Trainee reflection on his/her learning - - + ++ Trainee assessment of learner mastery -

- - ++ ++ Multiple learning sessions - - + ++ ++ NOTE. - = No activity or opportunity, = limited opportunity, + = multiple opportunities, and ++ = multiple and varied opportunities.

Participants Judgments of the Benefits of the Five Types of Training 32 MEAN PARTICIPANT RATING Usefulness Abilities 30 28 26 24 22 20 Presentations Day Workshops Multi-Day Workshops Field-Based Enhanced FieldBased

TYPE OF TRAINING Interaction Between Hours and Type of Training for Improved Family Systems Intervention Abilities 32 Multiday Workshops PARTICIPANT RATINGS 30 Field-Based Enhanced Field-Based 28 26 24 22 20 10 20

HOURS OF TRAINING Principles Training formats must be designed to ensure that evidence-based adult learning strategies can be used. More time spent using the most effective strategies increases the learning rate. Participant Chat After looking at these data, what training formats/strategies come to mind that you can use that might support changes in practitioners practices? Study II Head Start Teacher Effectiveness Project Head Start Teacher Effectiveness and Child Outcomes 36 Classrooms in Early Head Start Programs: 18 children per classroom

2 full-time adults per classroom 49 teachers and teacher assistants: Average teacher age was 40 years Average years in current position were 5.1 (SD = 4.7) Collected the following data: Background Demographics Teacher Characteristics Implementation Fidelity Intervention Fidelity Social Validity Child Outcomes Training Content Training focused on two components of classroom practices known to promote positive child outcomes:

Child Learning Practices Instructional Practices Key Features The key features of the professional development (PALS II) model include: Introduce and Illustrate Practice and Assess Review and Reflect Mastery Active participation of teachers in their own learning Ability to respond to and individualize training Practice Reflection Checklist Specify the practice indicators for each project component Child Learning Practices: 18 indicators Instructional Practices: 16 indicators

Help teachers understand key characteristics of the practices Serve as the standards against which teachers examine and improve their practices Relationship Among the Two Types of Fidelity and Child/Parent Outcomes Implementation Fidelity Intervention Fidelity Child/Parent Outcomes Coaching Characteristics Weekly sessions for 16 weeks

Session length: M = 2.5 hours, SD = 1.5, Range = .25- 5.25 In classroom (93%) Trainer introduces new information (72%) Trainer provides illustration (94%) Observation of classroom (95%)

Trainee practices specific skill (64%) Trainee assess on practice (81%) Trainer provides verbal feedback (98%) Goal planning (83%) Project Measures Implementation Fidelity Measure Construct HSTDI Training Record

Frequency, length, and mode of training Teacher Engagement in Adult Learning Process Introduction, illustration, evaluation, mastery, teacher receptivenessCoachs assessment Teacher Training Feedback Form Exposure, adherence, responsiveness regarding training processTeachers assessment Teacher Practice Feedback Form Exposure, adherence, responsiveness regarding training on project practices or contentTeachers assessment

Project Measures Outcome Measures Measure Construct Child Learning Practices Interest-based child learning, Child learning activities, Increased learning opportunities Instructional Practices CLASS Child engagement, Teacher responsiveness, Response elaboration Emotional support, Classroom Organization, Instructional Support

Relationship Between Differences in Implementation Fidelity and Teachers Classroom Practices Classroom Practices Child Learning Practices Interest-Based Child Learning Child Learning Activities Increased Learning Opportunities Instructional Practices Child Engagement Teacher Responsiveness Response Elaboration CLASS Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support a test. Number of subscale items. b One-tailed

Implementation Fidelity Low High Mean SD Mean SD Cohens d 9.22 29.00 22.00 2.59 6.34 4.39 10.80 32.90 23.90 1.81

2.23 2.92 .71 .82 .51 9.44 20.44 18.78 2.24 5.53 4.66 10.60 23.50 21.80 1.35 3.75 3.68

.63 .64 .72 4.88 4.75 1.70 1.19 0.68 0.73 5.58 5.01 2.09 0.87 0.68 0.99 .67 .32 .45

Relationship Between Differences in Training Implementation Fidelity and Follow-Up Observation of Teachers Classroom Practices Classroom Practices Child Learning Practices Interest-Based Child Learning Child Learning Activities Increased Learning Opportunities Instructional Practices Child Engagement Teacher Responsiveness Response Elaboration CLASS Emotional Support Classroom Organization Instructional Support Implementation Fidelity Low High Mean SD

Mean SD Cohens d 10.22 31.89 22.11 1.72 2.93 3.66 10.00 32.50 22.30 1.24 2.91 3.02 -.15 .21

.06 9.67 23.22 20.33 2.12 4.71 3.60 10.10 24.80 21.50 1.52 3.26 3.02 .23 .39 .35 5.46

5.16 1.96 0.97 0.86 0.72 5.82 5.13 1.87 0.72 0.96 0.73 .42 -.03 -.13 Study III Center for Early Literacy Learning: Train the Trainer Model

CELL Early Literacy Learning Model Literacy-Rich Environments Everyday Literacy Activities Responsive Teaching Early Literacy Learning Outcomes Child Interests 44 Principles Active participation of the learner in all phases of the training is essential. Individualize training to support learner mastery of the

practice. Encourage practitioners self-reflection at every phase of the process (Specific checklists can be helpful) to increase the rate of change in practitioners practices. The more training strategies (introduce, illustrate, practice, etc.) used during training, the greater the change in practitioner practices. Checklists are effective tools for engaging practitioners in selfreflection. 45 Methods of Assessing Implementation Fidelity Implementation fidelity can be gathered through observation to determine if the trainer uses the correct training strategies. Implementation fidelity data can be collected from trainees about whether the trainer provides the appropriate training content and strategies. Implementation data ask the trainee to indicate the extent to which they feel competent with the practice content and training strategies they are supposed to use. 46

CELL Trainer Feedback Form Content Items 1. The importance of literacy-rich environments was well explained by the trainer. 2. The key characteristics of responsive teaching were described and illustrated in ways that made the instructional practice easy to understand. Training-Method Items 3. The importance of active participation of trainees as a method was made explicitly clear. 4. The training method was described in enough detail to understand its key elements. Practice Items 5. A sufficient amount of time was devoted to each component of the CELL literacy model. 6. The activities for engaging trainees in learning the CELL literacy practices were especially helpful. 47 P E R C E N T A G E S O F IN D IC A T O R Implementation Fidelity Level 1

Level 2 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Content Methods Practices 48

Questions or Reactions 49 Thank you 50

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