REFERENCING GUIDELINES What is Referencing? Referencing is a
REFERENCING GUIDELINES What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardized method of formatting the information sources you have used in your assignments or written work. Any given referencing style serves two purposes: acknowledges the source allows the reader to trace the source When writing a piece of academic work, for example an essay or thesis, you must acknowledge the sources of information that you have used. This acknowledgement of sources is called referencing or citing.
Why is Referencing Important? Honesty: By giving the source you make it clear to the reader that you are not trying to pretend that somebody elses work is your own. Courtesy: Acknowledging a source is a courtesy and respect to the person whose ideas or words you have used or referred to. Credibility: People will have more confident in your assertion if they know where your information comes from. Thoroughness in referencing suggests that you have
also been thorough in checking your facts. Helping Others: The source helps your readers to find the original texts or web pages to read themselves, should they wish. How will it help me? provides evidence that you have read wisely and understand your subject protect yourself from accusations of plagiarism strengthen your argument or point of view demonstrate that you have paraphrased and summarized appropriately and quoted correctly
What if I do not Reference? Failure to reference, or poor referencing can be classified as Academic Misconduct. Avoiding plagiarism is the individual's responsibility, and there are penalties for failing to do so. In professional life, you will find that plagiarism can have serious effects on your reputation and that of your colleagues and employer. It may prompt legal action from the copyright owner of any work that is not acknowledged. What is Plagiarism? The most common offense under the Academic Code of Conduct is plagiarism which the Code defines as "the presentation of the work of another person
as one's own or without proper acknowledgement material copied word for word from books, journals, internet sites, professor's course notes, etc. material that is paraphrased but closely resembles the original source. work of a fellow student, for example, an answer on a quiz, data for a lab report, a paper or assignment completed by another student. paper purchased through one of the many available sources. Plagiarism does not refer to words alone - it can also refer to copying images, graphs, tables, and ideas. If you translate the work of another person into French or English and do not cite the source, this is also plagiarism. If you cite your own work without the correct citation, this too is
plagiarism. When Should I Reference? Whenever you draw upon another source of information Direct quotations Paraphrasing Ideas Specific information such as statistics or tables or images When using someone elses ideas, arguments, theories or point of view. Referencing Style Sets of instructions explaining how you should reference the resources you use are called referencing styles.
There are many different styles, and you must not mix and match themit is important to follow a single style. Some of the styles are given below with the name by which it is usually known: Harvard (University of Exeter) Chicago (University of Chicago Press) MLA (Modern Language Association of America) NZLSG (New Zealand Law Style Guide) OSCOLA (The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities ) Harvard Referencing
Harvard referencing is the most commonly used referencing system in social sciences and education and originates from the American university. Harvard referencing uses the author and the date of the work in the main body of the text, and then uses a reference list at the end of the assignment which contains the references cited in alphabetical order by author; this contains full details of the journal or book cited. The purpose of incorporating the author and date into the main body of the text is to make it easy to locate works in the reference list. Harvard referencing consists of two elements: in-text citations (in the body) The complete reference list (end of the project/assignment) in alphabetical order
Referencing from the Book Single Author: In-text: Last Name (Year of Publication) p. Page Number Citation: Last Name, First Name Initials (Year Published) Title of the Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, p. Pages. 2 Authors: In-text: Last Name 1 and Last Name 2 (Year Published) p. Pages Used Citation: Last Name 1, Initial 1. and Last Name 2, Initial 2. (Year Published) Title of the Book. City Published: Publisher, p. Pages Used. Referencing from the Book
3 or more Authors: In-text: Last Name 1 and Last Name 2 et al. (Year Published) p. Pages Used Citation: Last Name 1, Initial 1., Last Name 2, Initial 2. and Last Name 3, Initial 3. Year Published. Title of the Book. City Published: Publisher, p. Pages Used. Illustration Book Reference: Author(s) Surname, Initial(s)., Use & between two authors.
Date Year of publication Naidoo, J. & Willis, J. 2001. Health studies: an introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Title In sentence case and italicised. Publisher Place of publication, publisher.
Referencing from Journal Articles In-text: Last Name (Year Published) Citation: Last Name, Initials. (Year Published) Article Title. Journal Name. Volume No (Issue No), p. Pages Used. Illustration Journal Reference: Author(s) Surname, Initial(s). Use & between two authors.
Date Year of publication Article Title In sentence case Kelly, C. & Lynes, D. (2008) Psychological effects of chronic lung disease. Nursing Times. 104(47), pp.82-85. Journal Title In Title Case and italicised
Journal information Give volume and issue as x(x), followed by page numbers pp. For multiple pages p. For a single page item Referencing from the Website In-text: Website Name (Year Published) Citation: Author/Editor, Initials. Year Published). Title. [online]. Place of Publication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL [Accessed Date Month Year].
Illustration Website Author(s) Surname, Initial(s) if a person is the author. Otherwise use corporate author or organisation. Date Year site last updated (often shown at the bottom of the page). If not known, enter (no date).
Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2009. Background to every child matters. Every Child Matters [Online]. Available at http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters/about/background/background . Accessed on 18th February 2010, 11:10pm. Page Title In sentence case Website Title In Title Case and italicised. Followed by [Online].
Access information Give full address of webpage, and date and time you accessed the resource. Referencing from Newspaper In-text: Last Name (Year Published) p. Pages Used Citation: Author(s) of article, initials. Year of publication).Title of article, Title of newspaper, Day month, Page number(s).
Illustration Newspaper Author(s) Surname, Initial(s). Use & between two authors. Title of Newspaper In Title Case and italicised Date Year of publication Article Title
In sentence case Page Access information Date and Month p. Page number Referencing from Course Materials/Lecture Notes In-text: Lecturer/Authors Surname (Year of Publication) Citation: Author Surname, Initial(s). Year of Publication. Subject Code Title of the study guide. Publisher, Place of Publication.
Illustration Course Materials Author(s) Surname, Initial(s). Use & between two authors. Publisher Date Year of publication Subject Code Title
In Title Case and italicised Place of Publication or Unpublished Country/City/State Referencing from Interview In-text: Candidates Last Name (Year of Interview) Citation: Candidates Last Name, Initial. Year of Interview. Title of Interview. Interviewed by.. Name [Type of medium: TV/Radio/In person] Date, Time. Illustration Interview Author(s)
Surname, Initial(s). Use & between two authors. Date Year of Interview Title of Interview In Title Case and italicised Interviewees Name Date and Time of Interview Type of Medium (Radio, TV, etc)
Appendix (if any) Cover Page Unit Code - Unit Name Lecturer Name Topic Name Submission Date Student Name Student ID Executive Summary An executive summary is an overall summary of the entire report. It
should have 3-4 short paragraphs: Paragraph 1: Based on the Introduction (Introduce the topic of your report) Paragraph 2: Summary of the body (Indicate main subjects examined in the discussion section of your report) Paragraph 3: Summary of the conclusions Paragraph 4: Outline recommendations, if any, in bullet points NOTE: Even though it appears first, the Executive Summary is one of the last things you will write. Table of Content Introduction
1. Topic 1 2 1.1 Sub Topic 1 1.2 Sub Topic 2 1.2.1 Sub Topic 2.1 1.2.2 Sub Topc 2.2 1.3 Sub Topic 3 1.3.1 Sub Topic 3.1 1.4 Sub Topic 4 1.4.1 Sub Topic 4.1 1
Conclusion 6 List of Figures Figure 1 8 2 2
3 4 4 4 4 5 Introduction The introduction should generally include three key types of information: a) Background - brief background information required for the reader to understand the report. NOTE: Detailed company background should not be included here. It is best
discussed in the body of the report b) Aims/ objectives - It indicates what key questions the report is trying to answer and what it is trying to achieve. Why was it written? c) Scope - Tell the reader exactly what areas/ideas are covered in the report. This also helps to explain how the report is organized. Body All your assignment questions must be answered here in detail with proper headings and sub-headings, numbered sequentially. IN-TEXT HARVARD REFERENCING MUST BE USED In-text Referencing:
If you take any information from the textbook, website, etc, you will need to mention it between the lines within your report. Conclusion This is your final chance to impress the reader so make it powerful. Most conclusions include three main parts: stating the aim/ context of the assignment again a very brief summary of the main points final comments and recommendations References
Last page of your assignment must include the complete list of the references used during the completion of your assignment with all the details. Formatting Guidelines Margins: 1 cm on all sides except right side (2 cm on the right side) Font: 12 point, Times New Roman Line Spacing: 1.5 Alignment: Left Flush Pagination: Use footer for Page Numbers Headings: Main headings: Centered, boldface, uppercase and lowercase heading
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