Presentation to Dita TC R&D work of convergence

Presentation to Dita TC R&D work of convergence

Presentation to Dita TC R&D work of convergence between S1000D and Dita Jean-Jacques Thomasson representing the French Group working on S1000D and DITA Company Euriware (Areva) July 2012 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA INTRODUCTION Members of the S1000D-DITA initiative WG Guillemette Borrel : Technical Mgr of Information Management Dpt at LGM (Consulting Grp)

National recognize expert in Data Format Exchange : Documentation (S1000D/DITA), PLM, Logistic Data (S3000L, 1388-2B), PLCS Michel Domeon : Technical publications manager at Dassault-Aviation 2002-2010 involved from 94 as chair and co chair within the S1000D management groups (EPWG, TPSMG, Steering Committee) Nicolas Dupuy : S1000D Senior Consultant at PTC Co-chairman of S1000D EPWG group since 2006 and GIFAS representative Philippe Zingoni

Business Developer at Anta after 10 years of CTO a well-known French reseller of Adobe FrameMaker, PTC IsoDraw and Lattice 3D 10 years of work on S1000D standardization (Expert in CCMS & CGM) Jean-Jacques Thomasson Detailed resume here after 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Life with ML as Mother Language 2012

2009 2006 2003 2002 1984 1959 Resume and publications Life with ML as GMLSGMLXML 1984 1989 DCF/GML & DB2 developer (Dassault Systme) 1989 1997 Pre-sales & services manager at Interleaf France

and SGML/XML evangelist for Europe 1997 2006 Technical Director at Nagora then Sonovision-Itep (misc. publications on XML) 2006 2009 Consultant for Total (EDMS for Worldwide Operations) 2010 EDMS Senior expert at Euriware [Areva] 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Resume and publications Member of the French SGML UG (1993-1998) President of XML-France (2001-2003) Contributions to standards through translations

W3C XSLT, DOM, XPath, XML Schema (1998-2002) IETF WebDAV (2001) XML Topics Maps (2003) Other translation : OReilly XML Schema (2002) Books : Schmas XML (Eyrolles 2002) Modlisation XML (Eyrolles 2006) 7 articles for Gartner Group (2003-2005) R&D work :

RDM Store project (1993) Complete re-design of the S1000D XML Schemas (2005 2006) 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA The growth of a model : the S1000D case 2012 S1000D v4 Adopted worldwide 2007 S1000D v3 ATA 2200

Air Transport Association 2003 Aerospace industries Association Air - Land - Sea 1000D v1 1989 AECMA Military Aircraft 1984 AIA ASD S1000D v2

7 European countries 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Land & sea The growth of a model : the S1000D case 2012 Breakthrough with a new metamodel 2007 S1000D v4 Adopted worldwide

S1000D v3 ATA 2200 Air Transport Association 2003 Aerospace industries Association Air - Land - Sea 1000D v1 1989 AECMA Military Aircraft 1984

AIA ASD S1000D v2 7 European countries 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Land & sea The growth of a model : the S1000D case 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA S1000D : Initial problem reminder The natural growth of S1000Ds through the ages

Business view: How to mix different ways of handling of applicability and techdoc organization? Ease and even feasibility of the standardization work Acceptance by the users (current members and newcomers) of the resulting standard Technical concerns: Hierarchical or logical chunking ? Why validity of sub-schemas is important ? What means validity ? What is the concept of fractal validity ? How to maintain consistency between DTDs and XML Schemas versions ? 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA DITA : Initial problem reminder A tentative started in 2009 of R&D work to clean up the XML

Schemas 12/2009 initial objectives Each sub-schema must be a valid schema by itself, Groups of element can not be derived, Restrictions must be valid derivation of the parent object. Recursive models which indirectly expand the parent model are forbidden by XML Schema unless there is a formal extension. Irregular structures such as the "fn.class" model which is mixing at the same level text, inline data elements, structural elements and pure structural elements. It mixes in line elements and main structural elements such as paragraphs. Such models lack of flexibility and possibilities of managing small chunks of information are limited. This question concerns the possibility of considering that specializations address changes in the main structure while domains address the question of inline semantics elements.

The 1.2 schemas make : Impossible individual check up / control / change Hard the sharing of sub schemas between different specializations Extensibility complex 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA PROPOSED SOLUTION FOR DITA DITA : proposed solution A complete re writing of the XML schemas New meta-model respecting the Spec and DITA original extensibility mechanisms A UML representation which could look complex but the concrete implementation is *very* simple with only 5 basic .

31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA DITA : proposed solution One core package which has no link to other packages 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA DITA : proposed solution Each specialization has only one to other packages : one link to domain(s) (through which core elements will be included) 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA DITA : proposed solution At least, each domain has only two links to the [core] package 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA

DITA : proposed solution Same model is used for root element : it contains only one link to CRTTs and alternatively one to domains unused by CRTTs 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA DITA : proposed solution Finally, this model ideally combines : The logic of XML schema A logical physical hierarchy making a clear border between a core set of elements, the domains elements and the specialization This model will force the future changes of the model to be regular wherever they will be done : At the core level

At the domain level At the specialization level 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA JOINING DITA AND S1000D Joining S1000D and DITA: The business cases Interchange of data between aerospace/defense and other manufacturing companies To avoid conversions for sub contractors facing multi-standards requirements Particularly true for software components used in weapon and flight systems Use of DITA maps or S1000D PM to publish both DITA and S1000D content

Use of DITA maps features, such as navigational links (no equivalent in S1000D) Use of applicability filtering at the publication level (both DITA & S1000D) Use the DITA OT to publish (when S1000D publication process is expensive) Reuse mechanisms DITA : General reuse of any piece of information through conrefs S1000D : reuse of common components (Common Information Repository) 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Joining S1000D and DITA: The business cases

Easier implementations for decreasing the acquisition cost of the technology Creation of software solutions for both S1000D and DITA Common frameworks A Basic structure Many discussions in S1000D French standardization about S1000D Light This concept should be used to define a core architecture that could be the base for advanced specializations Flexibility

S1000D looking for new directions to increase the flexibility of the models 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Assembling or building complex schemas 2014 / 2015 S1000D v5 & DITA v2 2012 ? S1000D v4 2010 DITA 1.2 2007

2003 S1000D v3 DITA 1.1 2007 DITA 1.0 S1000D v2 2005 2001 1989 1000D v1 1984

31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Management of very big models S1000D : 1056 elements (945 complex, 111 simple) 372 attributes 149 simple types and 884 complex types DITA : 848 lments (751 complex, 97 simple) 276 attributes

111 simple types and 726 complex types TOTAL : 2000 lments 650 attributes 250 simple types and 1600 complex types It is mandatory to establish communalities to decrease the cost of implementation and maintenance of each 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Management of very big models When merging schemas or grammar, the designer needs to :

Know if the name is already in use If yes : what for ? In the same domain or not ? Are the types compatible or not ? Know at which level of the schema hierarchy the new component must be designed Core level for an impact on the entire standard : role of DITA TC Specialization level for an impact on one business : role of business groups Inline semantics for a transverse availability : role of DITA TC or business group Know the exact impact of one modification : On the structures On one particular business But also on documentation

31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas) Here comes / arises the problem of the logic which is behind the meta-model of the schemas SGML was allowing physical chunking of DTDs into pieces XML Schema bans that, it only allows for logical chunking Relax NG is so said a pure hierarchical model 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas)

Physical cut up/chunking Authorized in DTDs through the mechanism of SYSTEM entities which does not exist in XML Schema 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Logical approach Controlled by manual design only in DTDs Strictly enforced with XML Schema Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas) Physical chunking possibily leads to mess : 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA

Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas) An XML Schema An XML Schema containing elements Definitions or groups of An XML Schema An XML Schema containing attributes containing complex Definitions or groups of types definitions An XML Schema containing simple types definitions

Any valid XML Schema An XML Schema can be a tree of valid sub and sub-sub schemas: Where any of the sub-schemas can itself be the root of a tree of schemas And any of the sub-schemas can include any other sub-sub-schemas 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas) An XML Schema An XML Schema containing elements

Definitions or groups of An XML Schema An XML Schema containing attributes containing complex Definitions or groups of types definitions An XML Schema containing simple types definitions Any valid XML Schema There is no real concept of hierarchy at the meta-schema level:

One sub schema can itself be the root and the root be, at some time, a subschema In one word : there is no concept of DOCTYPE. No start, no end. 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Hierarchical versus logical chunking (of schemas) An XML Schema An XML Schema containing elements Definitions or groups of An XML Schema An XML Schema containing attributes containing complex

Definitions or groups of types definitions An XML Schema containing simple types definitions Any valid XML Schema There is no real concept of hierarchy at the meta-schema level: Set of schemas which are libraries of components / objects Schemas wearing the business logic

31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA The design can improve: Readiness Flexibility Validity, which will facilitate: Implementation of new mechanisms (Example : internal and external mechanism of applicability inherited from ATA) Use of XML Schema conforming software tools Better separation between business logic and technical structures Schemas as a Lego

Development of modular style sheets in line with modular schemas Control, maintenance and documentation : Avoiding duplication of same types Producing dictionaries of models, elements, attributes and types (already available on S1000D side) 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Be concrete : The S1000D-DITA working group is currently working on: 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Be concrete : 6 Proofs of concept have been done

POC 1 : addition of a new domain in technicalContent which modifies and limits the types of topics to only POC 2 : limitation to only and domain poc1-d POC 3 : addition of the new type of topic proceed by duplication of an existing type of topic. POC 4 : addition of the entire set of S1000D elements (but v2.3 version) POC 5 : addition of the latest v4 elements of S1000D, name dmodule is used instead of proceed, one same instance is made of DITA topics and S1000D

modules. POC 5 RNG : POC 5 converted to RNG POC 6 : Reorganization of the physical model and extension of the study to publication modules : pm, map and bookmap. Each can now be a mixture of any others. Other studies Business case and positioning Relax NG 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG We did a RNG version of the XML schema Two problems were found :

No recursive include : Meta model of Relax NG is strictly hierarchical making impossible the concept of libraries of schema components Root element is mandatory is sued to avoid the problem o o o It makes individual testing of sub schemas (grammars) impossible For example : reference.mod.rng Using and @combine=choice changes a bit the concept of validation of the sub-schemas 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA

POC made with RNG example : reference.mod.rng Grammar : 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG Case by case testing of parts of a grammar such as reference.rng is hard or even impossible : Producing the instance reduced to one particular element is not possible This occurs with any of the sub-schemas of the RNG version On Schemas side, any element can be individually tested:

Since Schema are really (not artificially) valid No Doctype or equivalent : Any element at any time can be the root element of an instance Design based on testing becomes very easy New proposals can be easily prototyped for discussions Training and documentation are much more simple Development time is concentrated on the design of the content model rather than spent in lexical and consistency problems Focus is made on having a coherent catalog of components which are then easy to control, implement, test and document 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG Example with the elements of topic reference: 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA

POC made with RNG Testing can be indifferently made at the root element level and at anay sub-level, as here after with subelement : 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG And here is the test from te root element: 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG Or any of the elements part of that branch of the structure (abstract for example) 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG

If you want to test elements defined by reference.mod.rng, then the test is limited You need to use reference.rng which only allows a test from the root element 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA POC made with RNG No document editor supporting natively Relax NG: FrameMaker : no PTC Arbortext : no XML Author (Word) from Quark : no Support by professional wyziwyg structured editors is a major

concern: Use of additional module such as simplified english Paper oriented presentation still requires precise positioning and interactive control of layout Revision management, dictionaries, layout of tables Integration with Techdoc Mgt systems, PLM, EAM and so . 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Conclusion Respecting the intrinsic logic of XML Schema is a *secure* way for extending the models to cover a larger spectrum of business needs

Our R&D work shows that the new model can join: The physical representation is logical for a human being. Moreover, the tree of folders is not rigid but is highly flexible: the sub-folders or the contained subschemas can be moved all around if necessary. The logical model not only sticks to XML Schema meta-model but also has a sense for both humans (it is easy to understand) It applies the concept of modularization not only at the information level but also at the schemas level: Fractal tree of schemas capable of growth like a natural tree Authorizing the management of very small pieces of information Probably extendable to concept of modular stylesheets

31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Conclusion With the proposed approach, version 2 of DITA can immediately embrace the Aerospace& Defence market of Logistics Support. On his side, S1000D can take benefit from the DITA experience in software documentation. Instead of reinventing the wheel, S1000D and DITA groups can focus on the software tools and toolbox surrounding the standards for a better ratio efficiency / cost. 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Demo 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA Questions

Jean-Jacques Thomasson Euriware 31-07-2012 TC OASIS DITA

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