Molecular Shapes Lewis structures VSEPR physical properties (b.p.,

Molecular Shapes Lewis structures VSEPR physical properties (b.p.,

Molecular Shapes Lewis structures VSEPR physical properties (b.p., solubility) polarity separation of charge in molecule electronegativity HF + - electronegativity larger molecules CO2 molecular shape b.p. = -78oC SO2

: : : : : : : : : :O :C : O : :O :S : O : 2 valence pairs linear + - 3 valence pairs trigonal + - non-polar

b.p. = 23oC - - CHCl3 water soluble H Cl C Cl Cl 4 valence pairs polar CCl4 insoluble Cl Cl

C Cl tetrahedral Cl non-polar Valence Bond Theory covalent bond overlap of orbitals bonding e- pair opposite spins CH4 geometry tetrahedral [He] 2s2 2p2 shape tetrahedral Pauling valence e- orbitals in molecules

in atoms mix produce molecular orbitals mixing hybridization depends on CH4 [He] 2s2 2p2 mix s and 3 p sp3 number of atomic orbitals mixed type of atomic orbitals mixed need 4 equivalent orbitals mix 4 atomic orbitals sp3 sp3 energy p hybridization

CH4 sp3 s hydrogen [He] 2s2 2p2 sigma bond s sp3 bond sp2 formaldehyde :: H: C :H : O: [He] 2s2 2p2

CH2O 3 valence pairs on C 3 hybrid orbitals sp 2 -bond sp2 hybridization -bond H: C :H sp2 :: energy p p

s energy : O: p p hybridization s sp2 sp CO2 : : : : -bond O :: C :: O

-bond s+ p 2 hybridized bonds 2 unhybridized bonds sp sp energy p p sp : : s : :

hybridization C O :: C :: O -bond end-to-end -bond side-to-side energy p p hybridization O s sp2 PCl5 trigonal bipyramidal

Cl Cl Cl P Cl 5 hybridized orbitals 5 mix Cl s + 3p + d dsp3 octahedral SF6 F F

S F F 6 hybridized orbitals 6 mix F F s + 3p + 2d d2sp3

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