Chapter 12 Aggression: Why Do We Hurt Other

Chapter 12 Aggression: Why Do We Hurt Other

Chapter 12 Aggression: Why Do We Hurt Other People? Can We Prevent It? Slides prepared by JoNell Strough, Ph.D. & Philip Lemaster, M.A. West Virginia University Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public

performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Multimedia Directory Slide 67Blaming the Victim VideoBlaming the Victim Video Social Psychology, Eighth Edition

Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Is Aggression? Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved. What Is Aggression? Instrumental aggression Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Is Aggression? Hostile aggression

Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Evolutionary Perspective Gender differences = Males more aggressive According to evolutionary theory: Males behave aggressively to secure status

Female choose male who offers greatest protection and resources Males aggress "jealously" To ensure their paternity Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Evolutionary Perspective Testosterone Greater testosterone linked to

greater aggression Correlational findings, not causal Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Boys are more likely than girls, the world over, to roughhouse and pummel each other. Is this evidence of hostile or instrumental aggressionor just of physical play? Source: Catherine Ursillo/Photo Researchers, Inc. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M.

Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aggression in Other Animals Is aggression innate or learned? Kitten and Rat (Kuo, 1961) Kitten raised with Rat became close companions Chimpanzees Aggressive behavior Hunt and kill other chimps Bonobos

Make love not war Have sex to diffuse conflict Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. When people say that aggression is natural, they often point to our primate relatives. Chimpanzees (left) are indeed pretty belligerent and aggressive, but bonobos (right) would rather make love than war. Source: Karl Ammann/naturepl.com Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cultural Argument Aggression is an optional strategy Capacity for aggression exists Expression of aggression Circumstances Culture Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Changes in Aggression Across Time Changing social conditions can change behavior. Aggressiveness increases as competition increases Iroquois competed with Hurons to sell furs to Europeans Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cultural Differences in Aggression Cultural differences in aggression European history Series of major wars Tribal groups in New Guinea Aggression is rare Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cultures of Honor and Aggression Southern, white males Argument-related homicide rates are higher, especially in rural areas This group tends to endorse violence for protection and in response to insults Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M.

Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender and Aggression Gender differences Males More physical aggression Females More relational aggression Gossiping, backbiting, spreading false rumors Gender similarities

Response to provocation Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Males and females can be equally aggressive, when aggression is defined as intending to harm another person. But whereas men are more physically aggressive, women are more likely to indulge in relational aggression backbiting, shunning, or spreading false rumors about their target. Source: Radius/SuperStock Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Violence Among Intimate Partners 49% of violent family crimes were against spouses 84% of victims were women Eight in 10 murderers of family members were male Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Violence Among Intimate Partners Elementary school (USA, Canada) Evidence of abuse of girls by boys High school Emotional abuse Physical abuse Highest in cultures that regard male abuse as a right Honor killings

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Why do some men physically abuse their partners? Source: Bonnie Kamin/PhotoEdit Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Physiological Influences on Aggression Alcohol increases aggression. This link is well-documented. Why? 1.Reduces inhibitions 2.Disrupts information processing 3."Think drink" effect Expectations about the effects of alcohol influence behavior more than amount of alcohol drunk! Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Physiological Influences on Aggression Pain Increases aggression Discomfort Increases aggression Heat, humidity, air pollution, and offensive odors Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 12.1 The Long, Hot Summer Warm temperatures increase the likelihood that violent riots and other aggressive acts will occur. (Adapted from Carlsmith & Anderson, 197Blaming the Victim Video9) Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression

Frustration-Aggression Theory The idea that frustrationthe perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal increases the probability of an aggressive response. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression Barker, Dembo, and Lewin (1941)

Created frustration by making children wait to play with attractive toys Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression Barker, Dembo, and Lewin (1941) Two groups

Control group who did not have to wait to play Frustrated group who waited to play Frustrated group showed aggression Smashed the toys Threw them against the wall Control group Did not show aggressive behaviors Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Frustration and Aggression Goal proximity Closer to goal = more frustration E.g., someone cuts in line More frustration = more aggression Unexpectedness of frustration More unexpected = more aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved. Is road rage inevitably caused by frustration with drivers who get in the drivers way? If so, how come not every driver gets as angry as this guy? Source: Vladacanon/ Dreamstime Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression Frustration Does not always lead to aggression Increases anger

Increases readiness to aggress Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression Frustrationaggression link depends on: Size and strength of the person responsible for your frustration Persons ability to retaliate Proximity of the person

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Frustration and Aggression Likelihood of aggression is reduced when frustration is: Understandable Legitimate Unintentional Social Psychology, Eighth Edition

Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Deprivation and Aggression Relative (not absolute) deprivation is linked to frustration and aggression. People perceive a discrepancy between what they have and what they think they should have. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M.

Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Provocation and Aggression When provoked with aggression People may reciprocate with aggression Will not reciprocate Provocation was unintentional Mitigating circumstances Must be known at the time of the provocation

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aggressive Objects as Cues Aggressive Stimulus An object that is associated with aggressive responses and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M.

Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 12.2 The Trigger Can Pull the Finger Aggressive cues, such as weapons, tend to increase levels of aggression. (Based on data in Berkowitz & Le Page, 1967Blaming the Victim Video) Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Learning to Behave Aggressively Social Learning Theory The idea that we learn social behavior (e.g., aggression) by observing others and imitating them. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Imitation and Aggression Banduras Bobo Doll Studies

Research Question Will watching an aggressive model cause children to behave aggressively? Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Imitation and Aggression Banduras Bobo Doll Studies IV = Childs exposure to aggressive model

Aggressive model Adult knocks around, hits, hammers, a plastic, air-filled Bobo doll Control condition No exposure to aggressive model DV = Childs aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Imitation and Aggression Banduras Bobo Doll Studies Results Children imitated the aggressive adults. Treated the doll in an abusive way Imitated exact actions of adult Children in a control condition Almost never showed aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved. Media Violence Watching violence Most research indicates it increases aggression, angry and hostile thoughts Playing violent video games Even stronger influence on aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert

2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Does watching violent movies make children numb to what violence really does? Source: AF archive/Alamy Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Media Violence Exposure to media violence Increases physiological arousal and

excitement Triggers tendency to imitate violent characters Primes aggressive ideas and expectations Social scripts Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Scripts Ways of behaving socially that we

learn implicitly from our culture Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Media Violence Numbing and Dehumanizing Effects Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with: Decreased sensitivity to violence Less physiological arousal

Less reactivity to real-life aggression Indifference to violence Reduced sensitivity to needs of others Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Longitudinal Effects Watching more TV violence in childhood

Associated with more violent behavior in adolescence and adulthood Longitudinal Study of 7Blaming the Victim Video00 families, 17Blaming the Victim Video years TV watching in adolescence predicted violence against others in adulthood Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Longitudinal Effects

Elementary school children Viewing more media violence at beginning of school year predicted more aggression, less pro-social behavior at end of year Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Longitudinal Effects Heavy television viewers Have exaggerated view of the degree

of violence in world Greater fear of being personally assaulted Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cause and Effect Direction of causalitypossible relations Aggression people may prefer violent TV

Watching violent TV may make people aggressive A third variable causes both Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cause and Effect Experiments and longitudinal research Viewing violence has strongest effects on those already inclined to

violence Gives permission to express negative inclinations Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Does Violence Sell? No TV violence and sex seem to impair viewers memory Compared to watching a violent or

sexually explicit show Better recall of advertised brands by those who watched nonviolent, nonsexual show Immediately after viewing show 24 hours later Men and women of all ages Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. How Does Media Violence Affect Viewers Aggression? 1. If they can do it, so can I.

2. Oh, so thats how you do it! 3. Those feelings I am having must be real anger rather than simply a stressful day. 4. Ho-hum, another brutal beating; whats on the other channel? 5. I had better get him before he gets me! Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Violence Against Women

85% of all rapes or attempted rapes are acquaintance rape. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Violence Against Women Characteristics of sexually aggressive men Narcissistic Inability to empathize with women Feel hostility and contempt toward

women Sense of entitlement Misperceive womens behavior Accuse women of provoking them Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Violence Against Women When women know their assailant, may not label it as rape College womens definitions of rape

Forced intercourse with an acquaintance or stranger Being molested as a child If drunk, drugged, or assaulted by boyfriend, less likely to label as rape Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Violence Against Women Sexual scripts Traditional female role

Resist the males sexual advances Males role Be persistent Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sexual Violence Against Women Almost 100% of high school students agree: A man should stop sexual advances as

soon as a woman says no. But half of those students believe that when a woman says no, she doesnt always mean no Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Does Punishing Aggression Reduce Aggressive Behavior? If aggressive act is used for punishment:

Punishers model aggressive behavior Might induce person to imitate their action Threat of mild punishment Powerful enough to get the child to stop the undesired activity Child must then justify his or her restraint attitude change Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Many tired, exasperated parents punish their childrens misbehavior by shouting at them or hitting or grabbing them. But this kind of punishment usually backfires, making the child angry and resentful without stopping the misbehavior. On the contrary, it teaches children what to do when theyare tired and exasperatedhit someone. Source: Robert Brenner/PhotoEdit Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Harsh Punishment Use with children May backfire

Does not model appropriate behaviors Use with adults Can act as a deterrent Must be swift and certain Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Catharsis and Aggression Conventional wisdom suggests that one way to reduce feelings of

aggression is to do something aggressive. Get it out of your system has been a common piece of advice. This common belief is based on an oversimplification of the psychoanalytic notion of catharsis. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Catharsis and Aggression The notion that blowing off

steamby performing an aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive behaviors, or engaging in a fantasy of aggressionrelieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fans watching aggressive sports do not become less aggressive; in fact,

they may become more aggressive than if they hadnt watched at all. Source: Vandystadt/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aggressive Acts and Subsequent Aggression Does aggressive behavior reduce the need for further aggression? Generally, the answer is NO! Reverse tends to be true Competitive games increase aggression

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aggressive Acts and Subsequent Aggression What about watching aggressive games? Will that reduce aggressive behavior? NO!

Watching aggression also increases aggression. Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aggressive Acts and Subsequent Aggression Does direct aggression against the source of your anger reduce further aggression? Again, the answer is NO!

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Blaming the Victim of Our Aggression Participants who inflicted psychological or physical harm on an innocent person: Derogated their victims Convinced themselves victim deserved what they got

Makes it easier to do further harm to the victim in the future Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Blaming the Victim Video Click on the screenshot to see an example of "blaming the victim" when witnesses believe they are watching an argument between a battered woman and her boyfriend.

Back to Directory Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Are We Supposed to Do with Our Anger? Control anger by actively enabling it to dissipate. Use simple devices. Count to 10. Take deep breaths.

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Venting Versus Self-Awareness If close friend or spouse makes you angry, expressing anger may allow you to: Gain insight into yourself and dynamics of the relationship If anger is:

Non-violent Non-demeaning Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Venting Versus Self-Awareness To resolve conflict, it is best to reveal anger to the person who provoked you: But it can be helpful to write down feelings in a journal

Benefits of opening up Not due to venting Due to insights and self-awareness (Pennebaker, 1990) Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Defusing Anger Through an Apology To reduce aggression Take responsibility

Apologize Indicate it is unlikely to happen again Oops! My bad! Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Modeling Nonaggressive Behavior Modeling works with nonaggressive

behavior. When children see adults express themselves in calm, respectful manner after provocation Children handle own frustrations with less aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Training in Communication and Problem Solving Skills

Those who lack skills often react aggressively Formal training can reduce aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Build Empathy Taking the perspective of the aggressor reduces aggression Harder to aggress when one feels

a personal connection with a person Empathy is a skill that can be taught Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Children who are taught to put themselves in others shoes often have higher self-esteem, are more generous, and are less aggressive than children who lack skills of empathy. Source: Michael Pole/Corbis

Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Summary and Review Types of Aggression Sources of Aggression

Theories of Aggression Violent Pornography Reducing Aggression Social Psychology, Eighth Edition Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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