INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING Chapter 2 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual

INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING Chapter 2 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual

INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING Chapter 2 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. FASB Conceptual Framework The Conceptual Framework is intended to:

Guide the FASB in establishing accounting standards Provide a frame of reference for financial statement preparers and auditors for resolving accounting questions in situations where a standard does not exist Establish objectives and conceptual guidelines that form the bounds for judgment in the preparation of financial statements Increase users understanding of and confidence in financial reporting Enhance financial statement comparability across companies and over time

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Accounting Principles Accounting principles are fundamental theories, truths and propositions that serve as the foundation for financial accounting and financial reporting. The most fundamental statements of these principles come from FASBs Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts

Also known as Concept Statements Generally broad and definitional 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Accounting Concepts FASBs Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts are general proclamations that establish: Fundamental principles of accounting

Objectives of financial reporting Qualities of useful financial accounting information Definitions of basic elements like assets and liabilities Types of economic transactions, events, and arrangements to be recognized in financial statements Measurement attributes to use to measure and report these transactions, events, and arrangements How transactions, events, and arrangements should be presented and classified in financial statements Are the basis and objectives of GAAP

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Accounting Standards Accounting standards

Establish the authoritative guidance on how companies should account for and report specific transactions, events, and arrangements in their financial statements. Specific accounting standards in GAAP provide guidance on when and how to recognize and measure these elements in financial statements. Within accounting standards, rules exist, which are specific implementation procedures. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Relationship of Principles, Concepts, Standards, and Rules

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Conceptual Framework Projects 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. What are the Objectives of Financial Reporting? (Slide 1 of 2) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. What are the Objectives of Financial Reporting? (Slide 2 of 2)

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Useful Information for Investors, Lenders, and Other Creditors The following types of information are helpful in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of expected future cash flows to a company:

Return on investment measure of overall company performance for equity shareholders Risk the uncertainty or unpredictability of future profitability of a company Financial flexibility the ability of a company to use its financial resources to adapt to change and to take advantage of opportunities Liquidity refers to how quickly a company can convert its assets into cash to meet short-term obligations and cover operating costs Operating capability refers to the ability of a company to produce goods and services for customers

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Qualitative Characteristics 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Process of Applying Fundamental Qualitative Characteristics Step 1 Identify an economic transaction, event, or arrangement that needs to be recognized in the financial statements. Step 2 Identify the type of information about that phenomenon that would be most relevant material and capable of making a difference in decision

makers predictions of future outcomes/or confirmations of past predictions. Step 3 Determine whether that information can be faithfully represented in a manner that is complete, neutral, and free from error. Step 4 Determine whether the benefits of that information are likely to exceed its cost. What are the possible outcomes? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Accounting Assumptions and Principles Certain accounting assumptions and principles have had an important impact on the development of GAAP:

Reporting Entity or Economic Entity Assumption Going Concern Assumption Period-of-Time Assumption Monetary Unit Assumption Mixed Attribute Measurement Model Recognition Accrual Accounting

Conservatism 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Principles of Accrual Accounting The Revenue Recognition Principle determines the appropriate period in which a company creates economic benefits and can recognize revenues in income The Expense Recognition Principle

determines the appropriate period in which a company has consumed economic resources in conducting business operations The Matching Principle matches the expense to the period in which the economic benefits are consumed by generating revenues 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Sources of Information Used in External Decision Making 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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