The Surface Energy Budget NOAA climate research for

The Surface Energy Budget NOAA climate research for

The Surface Energy Budget NOAA climate research for understanding land surface processes and climate feedbacks Tilden P. Meyers Air Resources Laboratory May 3-5, 2011 Solar Radiation drives the climate system Solar radiation is the Engine of earths Climate system changes in solar output changes in albedo modifying outgoing longwave Climate Change

02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 2 The Surface Energy Budget H + LE + G + Ps Surface heat budget Sensible heat (H) = Net Radiation Surface Radiation Budget

infrared infrared Evapotranspiration (LE) net solar infrared Photosynthesis (Ps) Conduction (G) 02/03/2020

Air Resources Laboratory 3 Research Goals Assessment of ecosystem annual carbon and water budgets Detection of land-surface feedbacks in response to changes in radiative forcing (albedo, Bowen ratio and changes in energy partitioning, growing season fluxes) Improved parameterization of land surface processes for incorporation into Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes, including NOAAs models suite. 02/03/2020

Air Resources Laboratory 4 Approach Use micrometeorological measurement techniques to monitor the components of the surface energy budget (Rnet, H, LE, G, Ps) for representative ecosystems in the major climate zones of the U.S. Rnet = Net Radiative flux H = Sensible Heat Flux LE = Evapotranspiration G = Ground Heat flux Ps = Photosynthesis 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory

5 Why ARL? Expertise in Air-surface Exchange NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) Measurements of dry deposition using Micrometeorological methods Instrumentation Development First long term flux measurements of the surface energy budget and CO2 were made using open path analyzer developed by ARL scientists and engineers Initial sponsors of this work:

GEWEX (NOAA/NASA) DOE, Terrestrial Carbon Program 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 6 Various types of measurements and platforms Champaign, IL- cropland 02/03/2020 Oak Ridge, TN - forest Air Resources Laboratory

7 Radiation and Heat Budgets Sioux Falls, SD Ft Peck, MT Surface Radiation Budget Station Incoming Solar and Thermal IR Upwelling Solar and Thermal IR PAR (incoming and upwelling)

(Photosynthetically Active Radiation) Surface skin temperature 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory Surface Heat Flux Station Evapotranspiration Sensible heat flux Ground heat flux CO2 and Momentum Flux

8 Other Supporting Observations Soil moisture/temperature (5,10,20,50,100 cm) Barometric Pressure Wind, Air Temperature (1.5, 5, 10 m) Humidity

Surface skin temperature Litter wetness, litter temperature Ground heat flux Leaf Area Index (LAI), canopy height, biomass Internet camera Derived (NDVI, albedo, roughness length) NDVI = Normalized Difference, spectral index 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 9 Additional observations 02/03/2020

Air Resources Laboratory 10 Annual cycle of forest canopy 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 11 Major Findings Droughts that occur during the growing season, leads to net annual carbon emissions (Meyers, 2001) Mid-western corn/soybean ecosystems small carbon sink

(Bernacchi, Hollinger, Meyers, 2005) Significance of ecosystem storage terms in closing the surface energy budget (Meyers and Hollinger, 2004) Demonstrated use in-situ broad-band Normalized Difference (NDVI) to track leaf area index (Wilson and Meyers, 2007) Over 75% of annual evapotranspiration for semi-arid grasslands (AZ) occurs in just 3 months (Krishnan, Meyers, et al, 2011) 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 12 Current Distribution of Sites Current site Closed site

02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 13 Plans: A Surface Energy Budget Network (SEBN) ARL/ATDD Surface heat budget Sensible heat ESRL/Global Monitoring Division Surface Radiation Budget infrared

infrared Evaporation net solar infrared photosynthesis conduction 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 14

The proposed NOAA SEBN Network 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 15 Benefits Improved parameterizations of the land surface model physics that Ultimately improves seasonal predictability of water resources Better understanding of the critical land surface processes that control the seasonal and annual water and carbon budgets for various ecosystem types 02/03/2020

Air Resources Laboratory 16 Partners and Collaborations 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 17 Indicators of Success NOAA sponsored sites constitute approximately 12% of the present AmeriFlux database Bondville, IL is one of only 6 active AmeriFlux sites with records

dating to 1996 and represents the longest continuous AmeriFlux record in an agricultural system. Over 30 authored or co-authored publications (ARL Scientists) over the last 10 years, with over 200 publications that have used this data for assessments and synthesis activities. Serve as technical experts for the National Science Foundations NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) 02/03/2020 Air Resources Laboratory 18

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