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Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Effect of Pulsed Magnetic Field on Solidification Structures of Metals Zhai Qi-Jie *, Gao Yu-Lai, Li Qiu-Shu *Corresponding author, email: [email protected] Personal website: http://www.foundrymate.com October 11, 2004 Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Four Parts: Background Experimental procedure Results and discussion Conclusions Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Background: Can obviously refine the solidification structure No research on pure metal, e.g. Al

No consensus is acquired about the effect of magnetic field Little information is available about the refinement mechanism Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Experimental procedure: High-voltage pulsed power source and the solidification equipment Materials choose: pure Al, gray iron and stainless steel Analysis methods: OM, TA Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on Al (b) (a) 10mm 10mm

(c) (d) 10mm 10mm (a) B=0T (b) B=0.3T (c) B=0.38T (d) B=0.51T Macrostructure of the solidified samples under the pulsed magnetic field with different intensities Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on Al Average grain size, mm 6 5 4 3

2 1 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Intensity of the pulsed magnetic filed, T Relation between the intensity of the pulsed magnetic field and the average grain size Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on Al Intensity of pulsed magnetic field, T

1.0 Vol t age 50V Vol t age 425V Vol t age 850V Vol t age 925V Vol t age 1000V 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 Lower end of the magnetic field Upper end of the magnetic field 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -200 -150 -100

-50 0 50 100 150 200 Position of the coil axis, mm Distribution of the magnetic induction intensity in the intense magnetic generator Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on Al o Solidification temperature, C 700

680 660 640 620 600 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Intensity of pulsed magnetic field, T Relationship between the intensity of pulsed magnetic field and solidification temperature

Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on gray iron Chemical composition of experimental gray iron Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on gray iron (a) (b) 75 mm 75 mm (d) (c) 75 mm 75 mm

(a) B=0T (b) B=1.2T (c) B=3.1T (d) B=6.4T Graphite morphology of hypoeutectic gray iron under different pulsed magnetic field parameters Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on gray iron (b) (a) 75 mm 75 mm (c) (d) 75 mm

75 mm (a) B=0T (b) B=0.3T (c) B=1.2T (d) B=2.6T Graphite morphology of hypereutectic gray iron under different pulsed magnetic field parameters Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions 40 4.0 35 3.5 average thickness, (x10 )mm 2

30 2 average length (x10 )mm Effect on gray iron 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 pulsed magnetic field intensity (T)

Effect of the magnetic intensity on the length of the graphite 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 pulsed magnetic field intensity (T) Effect of the magnetic intensity on the thickness of the graphite

Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on gray iron o 1233 C o 1114 C o 1108 C o 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600

500 400 300 200 100 0 Temper at ur e ( C) o Temper at ur e ( C) st ar t pr ocess B=0T 0 50 100 150 200 Time ( s ) 250

300 350 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 o 1245 C o 1125 C B=3.1T 0

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Time ( s ) Relation between the temperature and time for solidification of gray iron Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Results and Discussions Effect on stainless steel (c) (b) (a)

(d) (a)B=0T (b)B=0.78T (c)B=1.10T 10mm (e) 10mm 10mm (g) (f) 10mm (h) (d) B=1.35T (e)B=1.8T (f)B=3.00T (g) B=3.24T 10mm 10mm 10mm

10mm (h) B=3.84T Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Conclusions: 1. The solidified structure of pure aluminum evolved from columnar grains to equi-axed ones, and the grain size becomes smaller as the augment of the intensity of pulsed magnetic field. The effect of the pulsed magnetic field on the solidification temperature of Al can be neglected. 2. The pulsed magnetic field can refine and improve the graphite morphology of the gray iron. Also, the pulsed magnetic field can decrease its undercooling of the eutectic transformation. Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Conclusions: 3. The solidification structures of austenitic stainless steel are changed from coarse columnar crystals to narrow and thin ones after adding pulsed magnetic field. However, equi-axed grains cant be obtained. Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University

Acknowledgement: Financially supported by (1) National Natural Science Foundation of China, (2) Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality The end. Thank you! Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Experimental equipments: Metal Solidification Research Group, Shanghai University Schematic of the solidification equipment: 1 2 3 1 Magnetic field generator

4 10 2 Pouring cup 5 6 3Liquid metal 4Mould 5Cooling System 9 7 6Computer-controlled thermometric system 7Pad 8Mobile platform 9 Thermal couples 10 Pulse power source 8

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