Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional ...

Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional ...

Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional Teaching Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019

Sessions Within this Module Session A: Experiencing an Anchoring Phenomenon Session B: What are Phenomena? Session C: Analyzing Performance Expectations Session D: Selecting Phenomena Session E: Taking Stock 2 Module Goals

Explain to a peer the role of phenomena and design challenges in science teaching, with a particular focus on equity and justice. Generate working definitions of phenomena, design challenges, and disciplinary core ideas. Identify phenomena related to a bundle of performance expectations. Experience how phenomena can be introduced at the start of a unit, in order to launch a student-driven series of questions. 3

Group Norms Assume positive intentions. Listen carefully to one another. Be open to new ideas.

Be open to productive struggle. Ask questions. Allow a chance for everyone to participate. 4 Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional Teaching Session A: Experiencing an Anchoring Phenomenon

Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019 Session Goals Experience how phenomena can be introduced at the start of the unit, in

order to launch a student driven series of questions 6 Initial Ideas, Experiences, and Questions How have you heard phenomena described, especially in relation to science teaching? What experiences inform your thinking about phenomena?

What questions do you have about phenomena we should answer together? 7 Animal Populations This is a photograph of the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer), which is

an animal that lives in the Serengeti National Park, in the country of Tanzania. 8 Maps 9

Buffalo Graph What patterns do you notice in the graph? With a partner, brainstorm some possible causes for the change in the Buffalo population you observed in the graph. 10 Questions What knowledge and experiences have you had, that might help us as a class

explain whats happening to the buffalo? What questions do we need to answer, to test your ideas about whats happening with the buffalo? What other questions do you have about what weve shown so far? 11 If we were to continue this activity We might

Take your questions and build a public record of them Prioritize them Decide on a first investigation to conduct 12 And as part of this unit, we might also Ask students to complete a design challenge that requires them to apply

their understanding of the phenomenon to solve a problem that addresses a concrete human need in Join a citizen science society. effort to help monitor animal counts on the Serengeti that helps evaluate efforts to preserve biodiversity 13

Discussion What is the phenomenon here? What strikes you as similar to or different from how teachers have introduced science units in the past? 14 Initial Thoughts Write down your initial thoughts or ideas as to what is a phenomenon.

We will add to these ideas in our later sessions. 15 Session Review In this session, we experienced HOW a phenomenon may be introduced at the start of a unit. In the next session, we will look more deeply at defining phenomenon and how it is different from a design

challenge or a disciplinary core idea (DCI). 16 Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional Teaching Session B: What are Phenomena? Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching.

[OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019 In the previous session. You experienced how a phenomenon can be introduced at the start of a unit You generated your initial thoughts and ideas as to defining a phenomenon

18 This part of the session will prepare you to Generate working definitions of phenomena, design challenges, and disciplinary core ideas. Explain to a peer the role of phenomena and design challenges in science teachingwith a particular focus on equity and justice.

19 But wait, is this a phenomenon? Your task is to work in pairs to sort these strips of paper into three piles, to identify which of these is: A phenomenon A design challenge A disciplinary core idea (DCI)

20 Discussion Share one question and where you placed it. Share your reasoning. 21 Discussion What are some criteria we can use to decide if somethings a phenomenon?

What are some criteria we can use to decide if somethings a design challenge? 22 Why Phenomena? In this video, Dr. Brian Reiser, describes the role of phenomena in instruction. Using Phenomena in NGSS-designed In struction

23 What are phenomena? Phenomena are observable events that occur in the universe and that we can use our science knowledge to explain or predict. The goal of building knowledge in science is to develop general ideas, based on evidence, that can explain and predict phenomena. Definition from Achieve, Next Generation Science Storylines & STEM Teaching Tools

24 Different kinds of phenomena Phenomena vary in how long they take students to explain or model. Unit: Anchoring phenomenon Days: Investigative phenomenon Moments: Everyday phenomenon Assessment: Scenario that presents a phenomenon 25

Different kinds of phenomena A phenomenon can be a case of something (e.g., what happened to the aspens when wolves were introduced into the Yellowstone). A phenomenon doesn't have to be phenomenal but rather something that people can observe. A phenomenon can be a puzzling observation of the everyday (e.g., Rainwater isnt salty, even when it is coming from the salt water in the ocean). Everyday phenomena can sometimes become investigative or even anchor phenomena.

26 Phenomena are not just what we can observe directly Fall/2019 27 Phenomena are not just what we can observe directly

Following Carbon Dioxide Through the Atmosphere 28 Discussion What are other contrasts or types of phenomena we should keep in mind, to make sure we are thinking broadly about possible phenomena? 29

Engineering Design Challenges Engineering involves designing solutions to problems that arise from phenomena, and using explanations of phenomena to design solutions. Definition from Achieve, Next Generation Science Storylines & STEM Teaching Tools

30 Equity and Justice in Science and Engineering A major goal for science education should be to provide all students with the background to systematically investigate issues related to their personal and community priorities. They should be able to frame scientific questions pertinent to their interests,

conduct investigations and seek out relevant scientific arguments and data, review and apply those arguments to the situation at hand, and Fall/2019 communicate their scientific 31 Equity: Inclusive Science Instruction (from NRC Framework Chapter 11) 1.Learning is cultural. Instruction should

grow out of everyday experience of learners and connect to their interests and identities. 2.Instruction should leverage sciencerelated values, knowledge, and practices of students families and cultural communities. Fall/2019 3.Instruction should allow students to bring their current communicative resources to bear through the full

learning process. 32 Framework The Framework stresses the importance of inclusive instructional strategies designed to engage students with diverse interests and backgrounds and points out that these principles should

carry over into assessment design as well. NRC, 2014, p. 222 Fall/2019 33 There are many kinds of design challenges Build and test physical devices or processes Participating in a citizen science project

Designing and implementing a dialogue or initiative about a socio-scientific issue Contributing to a community initiative to promote justice using science 34 During this session We have Agreed upon criteria for phenomena and design challenges

Identified the characteristic of a phenomenon Determined the role of equity when identifying phenomena for instruction 35

Reflection How would you Explain to others the role of phenomena and design challenges in instruction Incorporate equity and justice as you design lessons 36 Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional

Teaching Session C: Analyzing Performance Expectations Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019

In the previous session. We developed a working definition of phenomenon and design challenge from agreed upon criteria We identified characteristics of a phenomenon We determined the role of equity of identifying a phenomenon for instruction 38

Initial Ideas How could we go about choosing phenomena or design challenges to use in teaching? 39 Learning Goals Analyze a bundle of performance expectations for each of the three dimensions Brainstorm phenomena related to the

bundle of performance expectations. 40 Why Analyze Standards? Three dimensional standards are complex. Much is packed into each one. Spending time making sense of the standard with others creates a clearer sense of the learning goalsand how they relate to events in the universe. In analyzing standards, we often generate some

initial ideas about phenomena that we can explore more deeply later. 41 Guidelines for Analysis Use the Framework text as your guide, not your own ideas about facts you should teach that arent in the text. Formulate as claims in complete sentences. Consider facets or different aspects of the ideas represented. Consider knowledge students would need that is foundational for understanding the ideas.

When tempted to write a definition, instead of writing X is, start a sentence with, X explains or X helps explain 42 Some Example Claims 3-LS4-1. Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and environments in which they lived long ago. Facets Prior Knowledge

Fossils help explain the environment that was once present. Fossils tell us about plants and animals that lived long ago. Some plants and animals are no longer living. Some plants and animals, like sharks, look like those that are no longer living.

43 Building Understanding What are some core ideas and crosscutting concepts that students will need to use, to explain a phenomenon we choose? What practices will they need to engage in, that help us identify the kinds of evidence students will need to make sense of?

44 Homework! Take or find photographs that are related to the focal performance expectations that we could use to help us come up with phenomena. For each photo, write a sentence on a sticky note we provide you that represents your thinking about how the picture connects with the focal PEs. Take or find photos that are focused on both everyday life (things you encounter in your world) and things that might captivate young peoples attention because

they are puzzling in some way (or could be made into something puzzling). 45 Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional Teaching Session D: Selecting Phenomena Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching.

[OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019 Previously, we.. Experienced how a phenomenon can be used to introduce learning Generated working definitions for phenomenon and design challenge Analyzed a bundle of performance

expectations 47 Learning Goals Select a phenomenon related to a bundle of three-dimensional standards we have analyzed. Use tools to elicit student interest and related experiences to help select a phenomenon. 48

Coming to Consensus What did we conclude last time about: How to distinguish phenomena, DCIs, and design challenges? What makes for good phenomena to anchor a unit? What the key science ideas are that a phenomenon for our focal PEs needs to address? 49 Sharing our Homework

What pictures did we take? What are some ideas for phenomena they generated? 50 Brainstorm Phenomena What are some potential phenomena that might meet our criteria? Make sure the phenomenon addresses as many of the unpacked components for both of the 2 PEs. Go for quantity. Describe as something observable.

Write a driving question to focus investigation. EXAMPLE Phenomenon: As CO2 cycles the Earth in a year, it follows a swirling, complex pattern. Driving Question: What explains how CO2 moves in Earths atmosphere? 51 Share, Cluster, Reduce Which phenomena are the same or similar?

Which ones do you think are the most viable, in terms of addressing the standards? Lets reduce the number we need to investigate further. 52 Construct a Student Explanation What would an English learner who mastered the material give as an explanation of this phenomenon?

Write about 1 paragraph Indicate standards or aspects of standards in the parentheses Avoid scientific terminology unless absolutely necessary 53 Construct a Student Explanation Phenomenon: Most adults around the globe cant drink milk without getting an upset stomach. Student Explanation: The ability to digest milk arose out of a random mutation (HS-LS-3-2), which

scientists identified by looking for evidence of mutations that existed in milk-tolerant individuals but not milk-intolerant people (HS-LS-3-3). To test for whether this had an advantage for their survival, they looked for genes that were adjacent to the mutation (potential HS-LS-3-1 connection) that got swept along or hitchhiked along with the mutation, and found evidence of that indicating that the mutation was found in dairying populations (HS-LS-4-3, HSLS-4-4). Fall/2019 54 Building Understandings Discussion

What do you notice about our explanations? What are you wondering about? 55 Connecting to Students Interests and Experiences We still dont have evidence that our phenomena are good ones for connecting to students interests and experiences!

We need assessment evidence related to our candidate phenomena! 56 Student Survey Solicit student input through a survey in selecting an anchor to enhance likelihood of personal relevance. How could a superbug produce an epidemic that affects a whole population? 57

Self-Documentation Use community health practices to guide instruction Self-documentation technique used to bridge community activities with school inquiry and sensemaking (Tzou & Bell, 2010) Fall/2019

58 Self-Documentation Fall/2019 59 Image of selfdocumentation in the classroom

Fall/2019 60 In this session, we.. Experienced a process that helped us identify a viable anchor phenomenon Learned of two methods that could incorporate student voice in instructional design Fall/2019

61 Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable Three-Dimensional Teaching Session E: Taking Stock Modified from Penuel, W. R., Bell, P., Neill, T., Morrison, D., & Tesoriero, G. (2018). Selecting Anchoring Phenomena for Equitable 3D Teaching. [OER Professional Development Session from the

ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/sessione Fall/2019 Taking Stock Lets review what weve done so far. What are some steps here that strike you as really important? Why are those steps important? 63

Introducing Phenomena: Objectives Experience one way to introduce phenomena Build an initial sequence for a unit that is based on student questions Help students make connections to their own ideas and experiences 64 Introducing a Phenomenon Find a short video or piece of data to

present in front of a group of educators or lead a demonstration / exploration with students. Show the video / present the data / explore the object or process, and get their ideas about questions they have about the phenomenon. 65 Anchoring Phenomenon Routine tinyurl.com/AnchorPhenomRoutine

Fall/2019 66 Introducing Phenomena Many Faces of DUCHENNE Muscular Dystr ophy 67 Observations and Questions What did you notice in the video?

What did you wonder about? 68 Initial Ideas What are some of your initial ideas about what could be going on here? What are some related things we know about or have experienced, that could help us understand whats going on here?

69 Prioritizing Questions What questions are ones that we need to answer as a class? What do we need to answer first? Why those questions? 70 Debriefing the Launch The launch presents the phenomena, setting up the

expectation that they will observe some things that need investigating. The launch involves asking questions, and therefore puts students in the drivers seat for a series of lessons. The launch engages learners prior knowledge and related experiences as resources for understanding. The launch requires them to prioritize when to take up what questions, providing a possible learning pathway for them to pursue. 71 Summary of Process

1. Analyze the standards 2. Brainstorm candidate phenomena 3. Share, cluster, and reduce list 4. Write student explanations 5. Get student input 6. Choose phenomenon and launch activity 7. Simulate the launch to establish a possible sequence for a unit 72 Places to Find Ideas for Phenomena

T.J. McKenna of Connecticut Science Center http://ngssphenomena.com #ProjectPhenomena in San Diego https://sites.google.com/site/sciencephenomena Science News feeds on social media (e.g., @EurekAlert on Twitter) Podcasts: Radiolab (Science), 99 Percent Invisible (Design and Engineering), SCIENCE Magazine, Science Friday For older students: Scijourner 73

You now have tools to Identify an anchoring phenomenon for your unit of study Develop a storyline for explaining the phenomenon Gain student input into possible phenomena and the storyline 74

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