Rhetorical Analysis Annotation Acronyms SOAPSTone: Point of View and Authors Purpose DIDLS: Literary Analysis SMELL: Evaluating Argumentation and Persuasion DITS: Elements of Tone SOLLIDDD: Rhetorical Elements and Authors Style SOAPSTone Analyzing Point of View Speaker: Is there someone identified as the speaker?
Can you make some assumptions about this person? What class does the author come from? What political bias can be inferred? What gender? Occasion: What may have prompted the author to write this piece? What event led to its publication or development?
Audience: Does the speaker identify an audience? What assumptions can you make about the audience? Is it mixed in terms of race, politics, gender, social class, religion, etc.? Who was the document created for? Does the speaker use language that is specific for a unique audience? Does the speaker evoke Nation? Liberty? God? History? Hell? Does the speaker allude to any particular time in history such as Ancient Times? Industrial Revolution? World Wars? Vietnam?
Purpose: What is the speakers purpose? In what ways does the author convey this message? What seems to be the emotional state of the speaker? How is the speaker trying to spark a reaction in the audience? What words or phrases show the speakers tone? How is document supposed to make you feel? Subject: What is the subject of the piece? How do you know this?
How has the subject been selected and presented by the author? Tone: What is the authors attitude toward the subject? How is authors attitude revealed? SOAPSTone
Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject Tone DIDLS
Literary Analysis Diction: the denotative and connotative meanings of words ~different words for the same thing often suggest different attitudes (e.g., happy vs. content) ~denotative vs. connotative (e.g., dead vs. passed away) ~concrete vs. abstract (e.g., able to perceive with 5 senses, tangible, vs. an idea or concept that exists in ones mind, intangible) ~cacophonous vs. euphonious (e.g., harsh sounding, e.g., raucous, croak, or pleasant sounding, e.g. languid, murmur)
Images: Vivid appeals to understanding through the five senses Details: Facts that are included or those that are omitted Language: The overall use of language such as formal, clinical, technical, informal, slang, syntactical structure Sentence Structure: How the authors use of sentence structure affects the reader DIDLS
Literary Analysis Diction Images Details Language Sentence Structure
SMELL Evaluating Argumentation and Persuasion Sender/Receiver Relationship: Who is the speaker? Who is the audience? What is the tone directed from one to the other? Message: What is the content and/or claim? Evidence: What kind of evidence is given and to what extent? Logic:
What is the quality of the reasoning? Language: What stylistic and rhetorical devices are being employed? SMELL Evaluating Argumentation and Persuasion
Sender/receiver relationship Message Evidence Logic Language DITS The Elements of Tone Dictionrefers to a writers (or speakers word choice; besides the dictionary definition of a word
(its denotation) a word can have an emotional charge or association that creates a secondary meaning (its connotation). The difference between the right word and almost the right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug. --Mark Twain Imageryrefers to mental pictures or sensations that a writer evokes in a reader. Look carefully at the pictures that a writer creates; note his/her descriptive details in the
setting such as colors, objects, weather, seasons, use of light or darkness, look at any symbols and what feelings they may suggest. Themerefers to the authors message or to the overarching idea that the text leads the reader to consider. Think about the authors message; what attitude comes through in his/ her main point? Stylerefers to the writers use of language; is it formal, informal, technical? What details did the
writer choose to include or omit? Examine the various elements of characterization; assess what messages the writer is sending through his characters actions, reactions, thoughts, speech, physical description, or other characters comments. What feelings are created by the writers plot? What feelings are created by the conflict and how it is solved or resolved? DITS The Elements of Tone
Diction Imagery Theme Style SOLLIDDD Analyzing Rhetorical Elements and Authors Style
Syntax: Sentence Structure Organization: The structure of sections within a passage and as a whole Literary Devices: Metaphor, simile, personification, irony (situational, verbal, and dramatic), hyperbole, allusion, alliteration, etc. Levels of Discourse: Cultural levels of language act, with attendant traits (does the narrators voice represent a particular social, political, or cultural viewpoint or perspective?) Imagery: Deliberate appeal to the audiences five senses Diction: Word choice and its denotative and connotative significance Detail: Descriptive items selected for inclusion Dialogue: Spoken exchange selected for inclusion
SOLLIDDD Analyzing Rhetorical Elements and Authors Style
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