Protection of the Central Nervous System pages 247-251 Protection of the Central Nervous System Physical Protection: Bone: Skull and vertebral column Membranes: Skin/Scalp, Meninges Watery Cushion: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Chemical Protection: Blood-brain barrier 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Meninges Thin connective tissue layers (superficial to deep)
Dura Mater: double-layered, toughest Has inner folds between fissures Arachnoid Mater: web-like, villi reabsorb CSF Pia Mater: delicate, attaches directly to brain/cord Figure 7.17a Meninges of the brain. Skin of scalp Periosteum Bone of skull Superior sagittal sinus Subdural space Subarachnoid space
(a) Periosteal Meningeal Dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia mater Arachnoid villus Blood vessel Falx cerebri (in longitudinal fissure only) Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Unique to the CNS
Similar to blood plasma composition -Proteins and sugars Formed by the choroid plexus of lateral and 4th ventricles capillaries in the ventricles of the brain Circulates in: -Arachnoid space -Ventricles -Central canal of the spinal cord Arachnoid villi reabsorb CSF into venous blood 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 7.18a Ventricles and location of the cerebrospinal fluid. Lateral ventricle Anterior horn Septum pellucidum Interventricular foramen Inferior horn Third ventricle Lateral aperture Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Central canal
(a) Anterior view Figure 7.18b Ventricles and location of the cerebrospinal fluid. Lateral ventricle Anterior horn Posterior horn Interventricular foramen Third ventricle Inferior horn Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Median aperture Lateral
aperture Central canal (b) Left lateral view Figure 7.18c Ventricles and location of the cerebrospinal fluid. 4 Superior sagittal sinus Arachnoid villus Subarachnoid space Arachnoid mater Meningeal dura mater Periosteal dura mater Choroid plexus Corpus callosum 1
Interventricular foramen Right lateral ventricle (deep to cut) Third ventricle 3 Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Lateral aperture Fourth ventricle Median aperture Central canal of spinal cord (c) CSF circulation
1 CSF is produced by the 2 choroid plexus of each ventricle. 2 CSF flows through the ventricles and into the subarachnoid space via the median and lateral apertures. Some CSF flows through the central canal of the spinal cord. 3 CSF flows through the subarachnoid space. 4 CSF is absorbed into the dural venous sinuses via the arachnoid villi. Meningitis
Inflammation of the meninges >Cause is bacterial or viral (most common) CSF is sampled for presence of pathogen Bacterial Causes: Strep Pneumonia Listeria Viral Causes: Enteroviruses Mumps/Measles/Influenza West Nile Cerebral Circulation
Circle of Willis Arrangement of blood vessels supplying arterial blood to brain tissue Originate from carotid arteries in neck Wastes in blood are returned, in conjunction with wastes of CSF, by way of venous return through the jugular veins The Circle of Willis Blood-Brain Barrier The least permeable capillaries of the body -Bound together by tight junctions -allows diffusion of water, glucose, essential amino acids
Keeps out potentially harmful substances: -metabolic wastes (urea, useless proteins) -some drugs -potassium ions Useless against some substances including: -Fats/fat-soluble molecules -Respiratory gases -Alcohol/Nicotine -Anesthesia 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
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