Properties of Matter

Properties of Matter

PROPERTIES OF MATTER Describing Matter How would you describe yourself so that someone else could identify you? On a separate sheet of paper, write as many physical descriptions of yourself as you can.

Do not put your name on the paper. Physical Properties A property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter. Physical properties identify matter. Examples include but are not limited to:

Density Malleability Ductility

Solubility State Thermal Conductivity Physical Properties Density Amount of mass in a given volume A substance is always the same at a given pressure and temperature regardless of the size of the sample of the substance.

The density of one substance is usually different from that of another substance. Density equals mass divided by volume. D=m/v Practice A bar of copper has a mass of 216 g and a volume of 24 cm. What is the density of copper? The volume of a candy bar is 55

cm. The mass of the candy bar is 70 g. What s the density of the candy bar? More Practice An ice cube has a volume of 36 cm. If the ice cube has a mass of 33.2 g, what is the density of the ice cube? What is the density of water?

Still More Practice At 4C, pure water has a density of 1 g/mL (1 g/cm). Suppose that you have 2 liters of pure water at this temperature. What is the mass of this water? What is the mass of ethyl alcohol that And Yet, Two More : )

What is the mass of ethyl alcohol that exactly fills a 200.0 mL graduated cylinder. The density of ethyl alcohol is 0.789 g/mL. What is the volume of a silver metal that has a mass of 2500.0 g. The density of silver is 10.5 g/cm Physical Property Malleability

The ability to be pounded into thin sheets. Example: Aluminum can be rolled or pounded into sheets to make foil. Ductility The ability to be drawn or pulled into a wire Example Copper in wiring soldering wires or joints

Physical Property Solubility The ability to dissolve in another substance. Example: Sugar or salt dissolve in water Three ways to increase solubility Heat or make warmer Grind or smash

Stir or mix Physical Property State of Matter The physical form in which a substance exists at room temperature, such as: Solid matter has a definite shape and volume Liquid matter takes the shape of its container and has a definite volume

Gas matter changes in both shape and volume Physical Property Thermal Conductivity The ability to transfer thermal energy from one area to another. Examples: Plastic foam is a poor conductor, so a hot drink wont burn your hand.

The inside of the toaster (hot coils) Chemical Property A property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties. Combustibility Flammability

Reactivity Acids Bases Oxidation Chemical Properties Can be observed with your senses. Are Not as easy to observe as physical properties Example:

Flammability Only when wood burns Combustibility Only when fireworks explode Reactivity Only when iron Oxidizes (rust) Physical Change A change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance.

Do Not form new substances. Can often be Undone Example Butter on counter can be placed back in refrigerator. Change of State Solid to Liquid Liquid to Gas Chemical Change A change that occurs when one or more

substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties. Can Not change back under normal conditions (some can be changed back by other chemical means) Common Examples:

Reactivity Oxidation (rust) on a bicycle pH (Acid / Base) Effervescent tablets Flammability Burnt wood Combustibility - Fireworks 5 Signs of a Chemical Change The only sure way to know there has been a chemical change is the

observance of a new substance formed Sometimes that is hard to do, so look for the signs. Sign 1 a Chemical Change Odor Production-this is an odor far different from what it should smell like Ex: Rotting eggs, food in fridge,

decomposing flesh 2nd Sign of a Chemical Change Change in Temperature Exothermic-When energy is released do during the chemical change ex: wood burning Change in Temperature Endothermic- Energy is absorbed

causing a decrease in temperature of the reactant material ex: cold pack in first aid kit 3rd Sign of a Chemical Change Change in Color Ex: fruit changing color when it ripens, leaves changing color in the Autumn, dying your hair

4th sign of a Chemical Change Formation of Bubbles This can indicate the presence of a gas. Bubbles produced when boiling water is not a chemical change. 5th Sign of a Chemical Change Formation of a Precipitate When two liquids are combined

and a solid is produced

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