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ATLAS Status and Upgrade Programme Monica DOnofrio (University of Liverpool) on behalf of ATLAS-UK PPAP meeting Birmingham, 17/09/12 Outline ATLAS and LHC: achievements and current status The high luminosity Phase Physics motivations Radiation ATLAS and pile-up challenges upgrades projects and

UK involvement Summary 2 and outlook Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 A successful year: LHC and ATLAS Great performance of the LHC s from 7 to 8 TeV (50 ns bunch crossing) peak lumi 7.73 x 1033 cm2 s-1 .. and the ATLAS experiment Total efficiency above 90% despite the challenging conditions 3

Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 A successful year: the Higgs boson The discovery of a new Higgs-like boson with a mass of 125-126 GeV marks a milestone and opens a new chapter in the history of particle physics Plenty of questions to be answered about the nature of this new fundamental particle! 4 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Searching for New Physics Enormous

programme to search for SUSY, ExtraDimensions and several other Beyond SM (BSM) particles 5 A total of 189 (394) papers (CONF notes) on collisions data and much more to come with full 8 TeV dataset (Moriond 2013) Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 UK roles in ATLAS Strong contributions of UK Institutions in several areas The UK holds key positions in ATLAS at senior management level, in Physics Coordination and data taking. Among them:

6 Spokesperson: Dave Charlton (Birmingham currently deputy) Deputy Physics Coordinator: Bill Murray (RAL/STFC starting 1/10/12) PubCom Chair: Tony Doyle (Glasgow) Inner Detector Project Leader: Steve McMahon (RAL/STFC) (Deputy) Trigger Coordinator: Simon George (RHUL starting 1/10/12) L1Calo Project Leader: Steve Hillier (Birmingham) Upgrade coordinator: Phil Allport (Liverpool) Standard Model convener: Jon Butterworth (UCL ending 30/9/12) SUSY convener: Monica DOnofrio (Liverpool starting 1/10/12) MC generators coordinator: Andy Buckley (Edinburgh) In the past three years the UK has also provided convenors of the Bphysics, Exotics and Higgs physics working groups Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 The next decades: the ATLAS upgrade from Phase 0 to Phase II The Roadmap to 2030 Most recent schedule (ESPP-Cracow meeting)

LHC has still only delivered a small fraction of the effective parton-parton lumidiscovery physics programme just getting started! Accelerator timescale driven by several aspects: Radiation damage of LHC components R&D and construction of LHC upgrades Required schedule of detector upgrades Long Shutdown (LS) periods to install upgrades Possibility of an HE (High Energy ) LHC still under discussion (see back-up for physics potential) 8

Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 The highest priority should be to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC Physics motivations and goals: With data taken in coming years at or near to the design energy of 14 TeV, a broader picture of physics at the TeV scale will emerge. Amongst the essential inputs: Precision measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson Spin/CP nature Higgs couplings and self-couplings VV scattering : understanding electroweak symmetry breaking Direct searches for new physics up to multi-TeV scale SUSY particles High mass resonances (Z, KK ...) Their properties, if found

Challenges: 9 Accurate reconstruction and identification of physics objects (leptons including the , heavy flavour tagging, photons, jets, missing transverse energy) Broad coverage in momentum and rapidity: e.g. to characterise events from vector boson fusion Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Physics motivations Based on the preliminary document submitted to Cracow meeting (final version:15/10/2012): https://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1472518 10 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012

Higgs spin/CP properties Establish the nature of this particle by determining the spin/CP quantum numbers already possible with 30 fb-1 @ 8 TeV if it is a pure state Better separation between spin 1 and spin 2 with large datasets and high c.o.m. energy. Similarly with 300 fb-1 @ 14 TeV spin/CP quantum numbers of non-mixed states can be established with a > 5 sigma H, H significance gg for top yukawa couplings Rare decays: H mm With 3000 fb-1, clean channels and rare couplings can be studied 11 Small signal-to-background ratio (~ 0.2%) but narrow signal peak expected signal significance > 6 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Higgs couplings parameters

For a given production and decay mode, s x BR is assumed to be proportional to GiGj/GH The coupling fit parameters are chosen as: Expected precision on ratios of Higgs partial widths (*) Expected precision on signal strength at 300 and 3000 fb1 (*) Phase-I: 10-60 (80)% Phase-II: 10-30% (*) (*) only vector boson fusion taken into account 12

Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham Also in progress (see back-up): Studies on trilinear self-coupling (lHHH ) relevant to determine SM parameters and nature of higgs mechanism: Most promising channels: HH17/09/2012 bbgg Weak boson (VV) scattering HL-LHC upgrade can have a major impact in discovering extended EWK symmetry breaking sector beyond SM higgs mechanism Preliminary studies on WW scattering: based using a reference model with unitarised amplitudes (a4, a5 = numerical coeff of two new operators), if 0.01 0.001 compatible with precision EWK constraints

13 Experimental signature: WW + 2 forward jets (renmant) Studies on dileptonic and semi-leptonic channels HL-LHC can probe the parameter space interesting for EWK precision constraints 17/09/2012 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham Searches for SuperSymmetry Very stringent constraints from LHC on strongly produced sparticles (1 st, 2nd generation mass degenerate squarks, gluinos) can be quite heavy (multi-TeV) Direct production of 3rd generation squarks and weak gauginos is becoming accessible as the amount of integrated luminosity increases (low cross sections) If No deviations from the SM observed in 300/ fb Deviations from the SM

observed in 300/fb 14 Extension of sensitivity (mass & cross section reach) with 3000/fb Signal characterization with 3000/fb Determination of masses by measuring endpoints of visible mass distributions Measurement of couplings and spin (via angular analysis) Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Weak gauginos and 3rd generation

15 Low cross sections ( fb) expected for stop and chargino/neutralino pair production Possibly the only sparticles with mass below 1-2 TeV because of naturalness Factor of 10 in integrated luminosity will extend the reach considerably Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Resonances Several BSM predicts i.e. new gauge bosons (Z) Explore ditop resonances, as well as dileptons. Di-top Di-lepton Sensitivity up to about 8 TeV 16

Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Challenges: sub-detectors and trigger system upgrades Based on: Phase II Phase I In preparation: end of 2012 17 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Upgrade goals The studies presented assume detector and trigger performance similar to (or better than) those of the present detector, despite the extremely challenging environment for data rate and radiation

Ensuring such performance is crucial and requires Upgrade/replace selected elements of the apparatus (due to radiation damage) and associated readout, trigger, data acquisition and computing systems to exploit fully the new phases of LHC running at instantaneous luminosities up to ~51034 cm-2 s-1 in Phase II Maintain infrastructure efficient and operational over ATLAS UK: Work packages (WP) on decades - Tracker upgrade (Strips + Pixels) For both Phase I - Trigger upgrades (L1Calo, L1Track, HLT) and II - Computing and simulation studies built on heritage from construction and operation 18 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase 0 and I Phase 0: 2013-2014, planned since few years:

long list of maintenance, consolidations & repairs 4th pixel layer installation (IBL) new chambers in muon spectrometer to improve coverage Phase Expect better fake rejection and efficiency Calorimeter electronics & trigger upgrades Higher-granularity L1Calo trigger Fast tracker (FTK) input to LVL2 triggers HLT upgrades 19 I: 2018 (in Phase I LoI, TDRs and MoUs 2013/14): New muon inner endcap Wheels (due to high occupancy of current ones at HL)

UK contributions Computing & software Forward proton detectors (AFP, 210 m) Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase I - L1 Calo&trigger upgrade UK institutes are engaged in upgrade of Level 1 Calorimeter Trigger, crucial to mantain trigger acceptance For Phase I: the UK is building the electron

Feature Extractor (eFEX) to mantain electron trigger thresholds at the current level (25-30 GeV) Fundamental step for Phase II as well From LoI fake rate for electron rate =46 L=2 x 1034 Without eFEX With eFEX +had isolation 20 WP7, April 2013 March 2019 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase I the High Level Trigger Significant investment and on-going commitment of UK institutes in HLT selection software, data-flow and processor farms (WP9: April

2013 March 2019) Increase Data Throughput Provide for new detectors (Inner Pixel and muon wheel) Developing new Increase Computing Power framework for L2 New readout Buffer Input design and Single-Node farm tracking (L2star) ROBin boards for ROS built in UK Current ATLAS: split 21 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase II

Inner detector (ID) has limited lifetime: Complete construction of a new ID to be tested on surface in 2021 and installed during LS3 New calorimeter readout to provide higher granularity information for the L1 Calo trigger L1 Track trigger Major change to trigger architecture, with use of 2-stage (L0/L1) hardware trigger Phase-II TDRs and MoUs to Changes in the very forward calorimeters be prepared ~2016 22 Now aged mostly by high total radiation dose (fluence) Very severe pile-up conditions expected: from 140 to 200 PV

Need finer segmentation to ensure pattern recognition 2022 140-200 collisions every 25ns bunch crossing Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 New Inner Detector: performance Need of new ID (ITK) with excellent tracking efficiency + low occupancy to achieve low fake rate, preserving performance up to 200 pile-up: Several algorithms and pile up conditions compared

Lepton identification Capability of identifying Primary and Secondary Vertex of charged particle tracks Identification of bjets (b-tagging) Track finding efficiency in several Pile-up conditions 23 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase II R&D: tracker upgrade All-silicon inner detector (strips + expanded pixel system) WPs 1-6: Long Strips AprilBarrel 2013, March 2016StripsForward Strips Short Barrel

Forward pixel Barrel pixel Baseline layout of the new ATLAS inner tracker for HL-LHC Aim to have at least 14 silicon hits everywhere (robust tracking) 24 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 R&D tracker upgrade: Short strip UK Institutes have a major involvement in many aspects. Deliverables for Short strip tracker region: based on a large area composite double-sided detector element (stave) Major goal: fully define the final stave using ASICs Schematic of Schematic of short strip

technology towards development of mass-manufactoring short strip module stave processes 25 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Short strip program Two clusters of UK Institutes to be formed (Northern and Southern) capable of the full production process Northern: Glasgow, Lancaster, Liverpool, Sheffield Southern: Birmingham, Cambridge, Oxford, QMUL, RAL, UCL Essential to guarantee sufficient production rates and quality control checks

Deliverables from current program 26 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Stave Prototypes and Powering Concepts Concept based on single-sided modules sandwiched around a carbon fibre core with integrated cooling Full Length 12 Module Mock-up Stave 2.5V 0V 5V 7.5V 10V 12.5V

Glue 9 5c .7 m Serial Powered Chain of Hybrids Extra Noise compared to Reference Data H0 H 1 H 2 H3 Glue Shield H0

H1 H2 H3 100mm Cu 62 60 11 26 140mm Cu 58 46 8 24 ENC ENC

ENC ENC Targets low mass and large-scale production DC-DC Stavelet 27 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 R&D tracker upgrade: Pixel Development and construction of the forward pixel disk 2013-2016: focus on R&D in preparation for mass manifacture deliverables: prototype disks and modules (sensor + 4 FE-I4 chips) 4 FE-I4 Schematic of pixel disk: to be developed from current IBL modules

compatible sensors from IBL project suitable for prototyping QUAD module 28 28 17/09/2012 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham Quad sensor masks fabricated with Micron Semiconductor (UK) Ltd R&D tracker upgrade: radiation Simulation studies for radiation levels and layout Detailed studies of beam radiation, expected optimization occupancy and fluences dependence

n-in-p Planar FZ Sensor Irradiations Strip Doses 900V 1.31015neqcm-2 29 Higher voltages and thinner sensors allow even higher doses to be survived Pixel Doses Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Computing for HL-LHC phase-1 & phase-2

UK effort reflect those of existing leadership and expertise Distributed computing system, ATLAS simulation, Software for tracking system, visualization tools WP10, April 2013-March 2018 All strands in current phase of the upgrade project expect changes of emphasis in the future planning: Significant effort in development of tracking software, simulation and reconstruction for detector and trigger upgrades Cope with evolution in hardware and software technologies 30 Usage of many-core processors along with onboard vector-like coprocessors with application of memory-reduction methods (joblevel and event-level parallelism) Evaluation of performance Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase II Trigger upgrade Hardware trigger in two stages, Level-0 and Leve-1:

Level-0 running at < 500 kHz in < 6 us Level-1 running at <200 kHz in < 20 us Level-1 Trigger from Phase I largely re-used to form Level-0 trigger at Phase II; Additional (new) L1Calo processing of full-granularity calorimeter data and matching of track and calorimeter features; Extensive changes to HLT improved selections, work with improved Level 1 information L1 Track trigger 31 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase II - L1 track trigger WP8, April 2013 March 2016 Estabilished as essential R&D needed concurrently with new ID development

Several follow up projects for HLT: (possible Phase II trigger architecture in back-up) 32 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Summary & outlook The LHC and ATLAS are performing well, and recent achievements such as the discovery of the Higgs-like particle demonstrate this The luminosity upgrade will dominate the high energy discovery frontier in the next two decades

33 Strong physics motivation (properties of the new Higgs-like fundamental particle, searches for BSM physics up to multi-TeV scale) Using an established facility and experiment to its full potential is mandatory for the HEP community Upgrades of the detectors required to cope with the high instantaneous and integrated luminosity (high radiation and occupancy, 140-200 pileup) Major STFC investment has given the UK a leading role in the R&D for the ATLAS Tracker and Trigger upgrades, crucial for Phase II and in coordination & planning of the overall ATLAS upgrade programme Remarkably, the recent discovery came at half the LHC design energy, much more severe pileup, and one-third of the integrated luminosity that was originally judged necessary. This demonstrates the great value of a bold early conceptual design, a systematic programme of development and construction, and a detailed understanding of detector performance, in confronting challenging physics goals. (ES document ATLAS 17/09/2012 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham Back up

New physics at 33 TeV An energy increase to 33 TeV, with an assumed integrated luminosity of 300/fb has been also considered: It will substantially enhance the sensitivity to SUSY and BSM particles, particularly to strongly produced ones Relative event yield Model 14TeV 33TeV Sparticle with O(s) coupling 3.5 7.5 This compares favorably with an increase of about 500 GeV from a ten-fold increase in integrated luminosity to 3/ab at constant s=14TeV HE-LHC needs substantial advance in many domains from

an accelerator side (physics, beam injection&dumping...) 35 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Higgs spin/CP in golden channel ZZ* 36 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Higgs self-couplings Relevant to determine the SM parameters and higgs mechanism as responsable for EWK symmetry breaking Trilinear self-coupling lHHH can be determined via direct Higgs pair production from gluon fusion:

Expected (NLO) s = 34 fb Enhanced at low lHHH (71 to 16 fb for lHHH 0 or 2) So 37 far, studies on two specific channels: HH bbWW* channel: 25% BR but large top background HH bbgg channel : 0.27% BR, irreducable bkg from ttH and other SM processes, for a maximum S/sqrt(B) of about 3 Promising: HH bbtt under study Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Search for squark/gluinos An increase of integrated luminosity from 300 fb-1 to 3000 fb-1 improves the sensitivity to sq/gl by approximately 400-500 GeV Higgs boson in complex SUSY decay chain can be

identified 38 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Flavor Changing Neutral Currents Several BSM predicts FCNC couplings in the top sector Example: studies of top decay BR in Z/gg 39 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012 Phase I L1 Calo architecture 40 Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham 17/09/2012

Possible Phase II architecture HLT upgrade work in UK Optimize the event selection for higher luminosities 6 ms Muon Tracks < 20 ms 41 L1 trigger < 200kHz. Incorporate new Pixel layer in tracking Integrate FTK inputs to HLT event selection Explore the use of GPUs to speed up pattern recognition Monica D'Onofrio, PPAP Meeting, Birmingham

17/09/2012

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