Presentazione di PowerPoint - Zanichelli

Presentazione di PowerPoint - Zanichelli

1 Sylvia S. Mader Immagini e concetti della biologia 2 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 C5 Circulation

and blood 3 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 The circulatory system The function is to transport O2 and nutrients to the cells of the body and to carry away CO2 and other wastes. To do this, the system must keep blood constantly circulating.

4 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Single-loop circulation Fish have a single-loop circulatory pathway: the heart has a single atrium and a single ventricle. 5

Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Two-circuits circulation Amphibians and most reptiles have a two-circuits circulatory pathway, with the heart divided into two atria and one ventricle. 6

Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Two-circuits circulation Birds and mammals have a two-circuits circulatory pathway with the heart divided into two atria and two ventricles. 7

Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 The cardiovascular system A circulatory system consists of a pump (the heart), a fluid (the blood) and a series of blood vessels (the vascular system). All together those elements form the cardiovascular system. 8 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018

The heart The heart has four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. A cardiac septum separates the heart into right and left halves. left atrium right atrium left ventricle

septum right ventricle 9 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 The heart An artery carries blood away from the heart while a vein takes the blood to the heart. Cardiac valves keep blood moving in the correct direction. superior vena cava

pulmonary artery pulmonary veins aorta atrioventricular valve semilunar

valve inferior vena cava Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 10 The heartbeat Electric rhythmic impulse move the heart. The contraction is called systole, the relaxation of the chambers is diastole.

11 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 The cardiac conduction system The heartbeat starts from the sinoatrial node (SA), the impulse-generating (pacemaker) tissue. The atrioventricular node (AV) causes the ventricle contraction. 12

Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood vessels Arteries Blood pressure in arteries and arterioles carries blood away from the heart. 13 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood vessels

Veins Skeletal muscle contractions return blood in veins and venules to the heart. 14 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood vessels Capillaries Thin-walled capillaries permit exchange of materials and gas with the tissues.

15 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Pulmonary and systemic circuits Cardiovascular systems includes two circuits. Pulmonary circuit: pulmonary arteries take O2-poor blood to lungs while pulmonary veins return O2-rich blood to the heart.

Systemic circuit: left ventricles send O2-rich blood to aorta; vena cava takes O2-poor blood back to the right atrium. 16 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Pulmonary and systemic circuits

17 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood pressure Blood velocity depends on pressure and on capillaries area. Systolic pressure: is the pressure in arteries during ventricular systole.

Diastolic pressure: is the pressure in arteries during ventricular diastole. 18 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Vascular diseases A stroke (or cerebral ictus) occurs when a small cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked by an embolus. A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery (the

artery that brings O2-rich blood to capillaries of the heart) is completely blocked. 19 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Vascular diseases Healthy life style can help to prevent vascular diseases: refraining from smoking

no drugs controlling weight healthy diet monitoring cholesterol exercising 20 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Vascular diseases Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is carried by plasmic proteins (LDL and

HDL). Anomalies in quantities of LDL or HDL can lead to the formation of cholesterol plaque in blood vessels. 21 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood functions Transports substances to and from

capillaries where exchanges occur. Helps the organism defend against pathogens. Helps regulate body temperature.

Forms clots to prevent hemorrhages. 22 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Blood composition Blood is composed of a liquid portion called plasma and formed elements: red and white blood cells, and

platelets. Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Clotting Blood clotting involves platelets that release clotting factors at the site of the blood vessel damage. Fibrin threads provide a meshwork for a blood clot. 24 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018

Blood stem cells Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), are multipotent stem cells, found in the bone marrow of adults, that can produce all the blood cell types. HSCs can be easily transplanted from pelvic bone. 25 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Capillary exchange

Between the arterial end and the venus end, substances diffuse according to the concentration gradient: CO2 and waste produced by the cells move in; C6H12O6, amino acids and O2 spread out. 26 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 Capillary exchange Lymphatic capillaries collect excess tissue fluid (called lymph) and return it to the vascular system.

27 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 AB0 classification system RBC membranes carry specific carbohydrates and proteins that behave as antigens when transplanted in incompatible organisms. Those antigens are classified as A and B and determine the type of blood. RH factor is another important antigen in matching blood types.

28 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018 AB0 classification system Agglutination: clumping of RBC in the presence of an antibody that binds multiple antigens and joins the cells. No agglutination Agglutination

29 Sylvia S. Mader, Concepts of Biology Zanichelli editore, 2018

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